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  • Sunday, May 22, 2005

    Political Thoughts and Life in Ancient India Third Set

    Political Thoughts and Life in Ancient India:
    Chapter II:
    Try to answer the following questions:
    Style: Book Based
    Suggestion:
    Use Chapter IV, The Wonder That Was India by A. L. Basham

    Reference: Continuation of the post Political Thoughts and Life in Ancient and Political Thoughts and Life in Ancient India Second Set

    The Provincial and Local Administration:

    What was the structure of the administration in ancient India from center to the lowest rank?
    How was the provincial governor was appointed in Mauryan and Guptan period of ancient period of Indian history?
    Who were generally the people appointed as the provincial governors?
    What changes did take place in the status of the provincial governor as the ancient of Indian history ended?
    How could we learn about the change in the status of the provincial governors in the ancient period of India history?
    What was the status of Chitradutta, a Guptan official?
    How is the case of Chitragupta an important case study in learning about the political changes in post Guptan era?
    How had the provincial dynasties developed in the post Guptan period?
    Who appointed the head of the districts?
    What were the functions of the district officers?
    From which inscription do we learn that the district officer worked with the consultation with a council of the local leading representatives?
    Who was the member of the local council, with whom the district officer consulted before implementing major decision in the strict during the Guptan period?
    What was tittle of the district officer in Mauryan times?
    What title did Magasthenes give to the district officer?
    What was the title given to the district officer by Arthashastra?
    What was the title of the district officer during the Guptan regime?
    What were the powers of the local councils in Cholas periods?
    What was the difference between the local councils of Chola period and the Gupta period?
    What was the role of the city councils in the ancient history of India?
    What was the structure of the city council give by Magasthenes?
    What were the powers of the city councils in Chola period?
    Who was the most important official in the city administration?
    Who was Purpal in ancient administration of India?
    What were the main duties of Nagaraka in ancient administration India?
    Who assisted Nagaraka in maintaining the law and order in ancient cities?
    What were the duties of a Dandanayaka in ancient city administration of India?
    What was the general impression about the police as a part of administration during the ancient period of India?
    What was one of an important immunity in the land grants to the police?
    What were the duties of a Gopa as envisaged for him in Arthashastra?
    What was the actual status of the post Gopa?
    What was the main duty of a Gopa?
    What was the reach of the authority of Gopa?
    Describe in brief the functions of a Gopa?
    How was the functions performed by Gopa recorded?
    Which other source had corroborated the facts on Gopa as given in Arthashastra?
    What impression develops about the nature of the government from the description given in Arthashastra?
    Which other post supplemented the activity of Gopa?
    Describe in brief the major functions performed by Nagaraka?
    What do we learn about the functions of the city head from the inscription of Girnar?
    Who was the governor of Saurashtra during the reign of Skand Gupta?
    Who was the last person to repair the Girnar dam?
    What was the post of Chkarapalita, who repaired the Girnar dam in 455 AD?
    Who was the father of Chkarapalita?
    What picture develops about the social condition from the inscription on Girnar dam about the Guptan period?


    Village Administration:


    What was the main unit of the administration throughout the ancient Indian history?
    What was the basis of classification of the city administration?
    Where was the classification of city more popular?
    What was Gangavadi district in South during the ancient period of India history?
    What is a Niagundige district in South during the ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the definition of grama and what habitation could be covered under that definition during the ancient period of Indian history?
    Since when the tax collector had been appointed as the major arm of the administration in ancient period of India?
    Which two of the arms of the government, which had been raised in the ancient times, from earliest available records on the ancient period, has continued to the present times?
    What was the status of the post of a headman of village in the ancient India?
    What was the tradition of the existence of the post of the headman?
    What was the major qualification for the appointment of a person as a headman of a village in ancient India?
    What were the incentives to the post of the village headman in ancient India?
    Which level of the village headman was given the official assistance for performing his duties in ancient India?
    What were the incentives given to the officers who were to assist the high-level village headman in ancient India?
    What was the actual status of the functionaries who were raised to assist the high level headman in ancient India?
    What was the image of the post of village headman in the ancient Indian literature?
    What is the term used of the village headman in Pali Jatak stories?
    What was extend of the power of a village headman over the villagers as per the Jatak stories?
    Whom could the villager approach their complaints against their village headman?
    What was the actual image of a headman for the cause of villagers in Jatak stories?
    What was the most important function of a village headman as per the ancient literature?
    What was the most important function of the village headman in the South which head dominating village councils?
    What were the major dangers to the ancient villages for which the village headman had to take special care?
    Who could cause the major harm to the villages in the ancient India?
    What was the ancient feature of the raiding character in Aryans and Dravidian?
    What were the sensitive times for the ancient Indian villages?
    What is Viragal?
    What is the importance of Viragal?
    What information can we deduct from Viragal?
    What is the role of the position of the village headman in rise of the feudal system in India?
    What was the position of the king Udayamana who was mentioned in Bihar inscription?
    Do we find references to the village councils in the ancient Indian literature?
    Was the Indian village council equally recognized in every ancient Empire?
    Is the interpretation of Yakvalkya samriti, that the powers of village council are derived from the king, true? If no, then what was the actual situation?
    What was the legal position of the powers of a village council in ancient India?
    Which empire and administration had fully recognized the position of importance of the village councils?
    What is the shortcoming in information on the village councils in North of ancient India?
    What was the general constituent of a village council in North?
    What was the constituent of a village council in Western Deccan in ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the general pattern of selection of village council in ancient period of Indian history?
    What is the best source of information, on the working of the village administration, in the Chola period in India?
    How was the village council raised in Uttaramerur village of Chola period?
    In how many wards was a village divided to raise a council in the village in Chola period?
    What was the basis of selection to the council in villages of Chola period?
    How many committees constituted the whole village council in Chola Empire?
    What were the functions of the various village committees in Chola Empire?
    Which are the three important identifies areas of activities of village committees of Chola Empire?
    What was the remuneration of the members of the village committees in Chola Empire?
    What were the disabilities that could revoke the membership of the committee members in the Chola Empire?
    What were the qualifications for the eligibility for being elected to the village committees in the Chola Empire?
    What were the restrictions on the reelection to the committees in the Chola Empire?
    Which of the two major eligibilities for the election to the village committee of Uttaramerur village of Chola Empire were practiced for similar elections in other village committees in South India, for which the records are available?
    What was the category of the Uttaramerur village of Chola Empire?
    What was the usual age of entry to the committees in Village councils of South Indian Empires of ancient India?
    Why was there restriction on the reelections to the village committees in the South Indian states of ancient India?
    What were the extreme types of restriction, on the reelection to the village committees in South Indian State in ancient India?
    What were peculiar ambits of functions of the village councils of South Indian States in the ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the authority of the village councils in South Indian State over the wasteland of the village in the ancient period of Indian history?
    Where the transactions carried out by the village council in South Indian States were recorded during the ancient period of Indian history?
    Describe in brief the functioning of the village councils in South Indian States of ancient period of Indian history?


    Financial Administration in Government setup


    What could assure the success of the government according to ancient Indian authorities on statecraft?
    When did the regular system of taxation evolve in India?
    What was the land tax called in the ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the main tax throughout the ancient period of Indian history?
    What is the actual recommendation on the rate of land tax in the samriti literature in ancient period of Indian history?
    What is the rate of land tax in ancient India as quoted by Magasthenes?
    What is the recommendation of Arthashastra on the rate of land tax in ancient India?
    What is the recommendation of Arthashastra on the rate of land tax on the fertile land in ancient period of Indian history?
    What is the rate of land tax in the reign of Ashoka?
    In what form the land tax was paid during the ancient period of Indian history?
    What do we learn about the methods adopted to fix the land tax from the Jatak stories?
    What was the usual method of imposing the land tax in the latter part of the ancient period of Indian history?
    What was practice of paying the land tax, in South Indian empires, during the latter part of ancient period of Indian history?
    Where was the land tax collected in the earliest part of the ancient period of Indian history?
    What were the practices for remission and exemptions in the land tax payments during the ancient period of Indian history?
    In which case was the land tax not charged for five years?
    What could be the case, in which, the land tax could be partially or completely remitted during the ancient period of Indian history?
    What could be the case when a group of villages could be exempted from paying land tax even during the normal harvest in the ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the general formula and what were it variations while assessing the land tax on the yield of a field in the ancient period of Indian history?
    Who were not being taxed as per the recommendations of the Sacred books on law?
    Who were granted tax-free lands in ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the tax on the religious institutions in ancient period of Indian history?
    What were made to pay more than the normal tax in the ancient period of the Indian history?
    What were the other kinds of taxes apart from land tax in the ancient period of Indian history?
    Which was the most important tax on cultivators apart from the land tax in the ancient period of Indian history?
    List the numerous taxes of ancient history of India.
    List the numerous taxes of South India in ancient period of Indian history.
    What was the share of the village councils in the different taxes?
    Who was appointed to collect taxes from the merchants as per the Arthashastra?
    What were the main functions of the Antapala?
    Was there anything similar to insurance in ancient India?
    What was the significance of the tax paid to Antapala for the merchants in ancient India?
    Was there any insurance of the merchandise in the Mauryan period?
    Was the feature of the insurance of the merchandise continue in the post Mauryan period?
    Were there any tolls on the incoming merchandise in ancient period of India history?
    What was the tariff schedule given by Arthashastra concerning different types of the items for selling?
    What was the toll on the essential items as given in Arthashastra?
    What was the toll on the non-essential items in Arthashastra?
    Do we find any mention in Arthashastra of the sales tax at the rate of ten percent given by Magasthenes in his accounts?
    What was the probable form of income tax in ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the meaning of vishti?
    Was vishti an oppressive tax in ancient period of Indian history?
    What type of demands of the kings and officers were to be attended to by the common people when the king and officers were on the tour?
    What was arrangement of measuring of the land in the ancient period of Indian history?
    Who were rajjuks of Jataks?
    What were the main functions of rajjukas of Ashokan administration?
    What is the full meaning of rajjugahaka?
    What does Magasthenes tell about the system of measuring in the Mauryan period?
    Were the lands transferable in the ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the method of recording the transfer of land in the ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the system of keeping the land records in the ancient period of Indian history?
    Why are the records of the land keeping of the olden times not available to us?
    How favorable was the tax structure of ancient India for her public?
    What is the description of tax collection scenario and its effects in the Jatak stories?
    What was the scenario in South India about the failure of the payment of the taxes by the people and the village councils?
    Was there tax oppression during the reign of Rajaraja I Chola king?
    What was the overall tax scenario in India? Describe in brief.
    What was the advice of the books of statecraft to the ancient kings on the structure of tax?
    What are the advices to the kings in ancient texts on the methods and nature of the tax collection?
    What was the sanction behind the collection of the tax by the king?
    What is the theoretical justification for the taxation in ancient India?
    What was the justification of collection and imposing of the tax by the king?
    What is the Puranic story to justify the imposition of the tax by the king?
    What is the Buddhist story to justify the collection of the tax by the king?
    What are the perils and incentives for the kings, on the collection of tax as per the traditional belief?
    If the king failed to serve the subject and even then collect the tax, what will the perils for the kings?
    If the king serve the people as he is expected to serve the people, what extra benefit will he get along with the collection of the tax as per the traditional view?
    What is the property of the king as per the tradition sources of ancient India?
    What is the justification of the collection of tax if the king was the owner of all the land and water over the earth?
    What were the two ideas, which justifies the collection of the taxes by the king in the ancient period of Indian history?
    If the king was the owner of the land and gave protection to the subjects for which he charged the tax, then what were the other implications of his situation?
    Could a king evict the person from the land?
    Could the king charge the fee on the time of transfer of land?
    Could the take back the land on the death of the present owner?
    What is the implication of the title of Adhipati as given by Manu to the king?
    What does the title Adhipati suggest about the powers of the kings?
    What is the version of Bhattaswamin on the question of the right of the king on the land and water of the king?
    Who was Bhattaswamin and when did he exist?
    What are the references in the ancient sources, from which it could be concluded that king was considered the sole owner of the land and water?
    Where do we find reference to the effect that the king was not considered the owner of the land of his kingdom?
    What is the name of the legendary give through whom it was being suggested in the Jatak storied that king was not the owner of the land?
    Which authority had stated that the king was not the owner of the land?
    Who was Nilakantha?
    What was the view of Nilakantha on the right of the king over the land?
    According to Nilakantha, what does a king transfer, while making the gift land?
    Discuss the views of Dr. Gaushal and Dr. K P Jayaswal on the question of the ownership of land and royal ownership of land? (However, the full understanding of this topic requires the reading of Feudalism by R. S. Sharma and Asoka by Romila Thaper. A fast reading can serve the purpose. However, in case you have liking for Finanacial Administration topics then include the reading of The Agrarian System of Mughal India by Habib. It will definitely help in preparaing question of Main II paper. However, I will like to direct attention to an earlier post on the Mughal period set of questions.)
    What was the position of Arthashastra on the question of ownership of land and the right of the king to evict the erring peasant?
    What is the position of Arthashastra on the question of eviction of the peasants who did not cultivate their land?
    What rights were given to the ancient king in case of financial crises?
    List the measures permitted to the king in case of distress in the ancient period of Indian history?
    Where did the kings have adopted the drastic measures in distress times in the ancient period of Indian history?
    What could be considered as distress period by an ancient king?
    What were the main expenditures of the ancient kings in India?
    What was the level of the wealth of the ancient kings in India?
    What was the policy of the ancient kings over the questions of the treasury position?
    What was the effect of the accumulation of wealth policy by the ancient Kings in India?
    Why were the Indian kings in the ancient India target of their enemy neighbor?
    What was the cause of the destruction of the ancient India by the invasion from the outer world?

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