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Sunday, February 07, 2010

Solved and Elaborated Prelims 2009 History



1) The copper – hoard culture in the post – Harappa period has provisionally been identified with which one of the following pottery types?
a) Sothi Pottery
b) Ochre colour pottery
c) Painted grey ware
d) Northern Black polished ware
Answer: Ochre Colour Pottery.
Elaboration:
Indus Valley Civilization is identified with Bronze Age. Bronze, a metal alloy, includes copper and tin. The Bronze of Indus Valley consisted of copper and tin whereas there can be other variations in making of bronze by adding phosphorous, manganese, aluminum and silicon.
The Ochre colour pottery has been identified with the later stage of the Harappan Valley Civilization or as it is stated in the question, as post – Harappa period. The OCP (Ochre colour pottery) was located along with copper artifacts which included axes, harpoons and swords. Thus, here in the above question, there is reference to the copper hoards and the Ochre colour pottery. This collection was first report by B. B. Lal. There is another term which has been used for it. It is OCP Copper Hoard culture.

The time period for this culture is 2nd millennium (That is 2000 BC to I000 BC). Hence, it is the later part of the Harappan culture as the later part is considered to have ended by 1750 BC.

Being a culture of later part of Harappan period, the remains had been found in sourthen Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhyapardesh and Ganga Yammuna plains reaching upto to Chota Nagapur.

Similarly, the copper for the bronze would have been procured from Khetri in Rajasthan, Singbhum in West Bengal but also from Bihar and Orissa and Maljkhand in Madhya Pardesh. The high quality of the copper in the artifacts is the basis of the claim that the culture spread upto Chota Nagpur area from where the copper of high quality and purity could be obtained.

The OCP culture has been identified with the latter stage of Harappan culture. This fact has given rise to debate among the scholars. One view is that the OCP culture depicts the impoverished phase of Harappa Culture and thus provides an evidence of its decline. On the other hand, the view has emerged that it was an original culture; an indigenous culture and not related to Harappa culture as such.

The OCP culture was followed by Iron Age black-and-red ware culture and painted-grey ware culture.

The first specimen of the OCP culture was found at Jodhpura near Jaipur in Rajasthan. It belonged to 3rd millennium. The later specimens were found at Ganga

Yammuna plains and belonged to 2nd millennium.
(Source: Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ochre_Coloured_Pottery_culture
Indus Civilization at http://pubweb.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/indus/english/3_1_06.html)

The Sothi Pottery: The Sothi Pottery belongs to the earlier stage of the Harapa Culture. The pottery of this phase was found at Sothi in Bikaner District of Rajesthan. The Sothi pottery is about the earliest stages of the Harapa Culture and not the post Harapa Culture. The main scholar giving this view is Amalanand Ghose as described in An Encyclopedia of Indian Archeology page 72. The phase is early stage is identified with Kalibangan finds also.

Painted Grey Ware: Painted Grey Ware refers to the post Harapa culture but it is later than OCP-Copper Hoard culture. It belongs to Iron Age Culture of Gangetic Plain. It does not belong to the Bronze Age. The time period is between 1100 BC to 350 BC. It succeeds Black and red ware culture. Some of the earlier phase is contemporary to the Black and Red Ware culture. It belongs to rather Later Vedic period. It was followed by Northern Black Polished Ware culure. According to B. B. Lal, it flourished in around Hastinapur, Mathura, Ahichatra, Barnawa and Kurukshetra.

Northern Black Polished Ware: Northern Black Polished Ware culture succeeded Painted Grey Ware Culture. It had started in the middle of Later Vedic Period. It continued upto the rise of the Mauryan Empire. This culture is of interest more for its impact of Harapa Culture on the later period. The impact had been seen in the use of the mud bricks, backed bricks, architecture, and different crafts. But it appeared long after the disappearance of Harapa culture.

Hence, the Harapa Culture period is identified with 3000 to 1750 BC. The Sothi Culture is identified with the 3000 to 2000 BC. The Ochre Colour pottery culture more recognizable for the collection of refined copper implements belongs to 2000 to 1000 BC. The Painted Grey Ware culture belongs to 1000 to 300 BC. Northern Black Polished Ware belongs to 700 BC to 300 BC.
The Harappan Culture followed the Chalcolithic Age or the Copper Age. The Sothi culture belongs to Bronze Age. The Ochre coloured belongs to later stage of Bronze Age but with increased use of refined copper but pre-Iron Age. The rest of the two belongs to Iron age.

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2) Consider the following statements:
1. Lime mortar was used at Mohenjodaro in the construction of dwellings
2. At Dholavira, stone was used in the construction of dwellings
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: C. Both 1 and 2.
In Mohenjo daro the lime mortar use is quite evident in the Great Hall and Great Bath complex.
Dholavira (Kotada), in Bhachau taluka of district Kutch of Gujarat, is another metropolis of Harappan Civilization which has similar city plan as that of Mohenjodaro and Harappa. No doubt that main contruction material is sun baked burned mud bricks but the most significant feature of Dholavira is the use of stone in the dwelling buildings. It was discovered by J P Joshi in 1967-68. It is one of the four main major cities of the Harappan culture. It is also distinctivly different from other cities because of more importance is given to fortification in this city. Dholavira is also famous for ten large sized inscriptions which has been identified as the oldest sign board in the world. It is also famous for making arrangement for the water storage. It used limestone along with baked bricks.

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3) With reference to Indus Valley Civilization, consider the following animals:
1. Bull 2. Elephant 3. Rhinoceros
The figure/figures of which of the above animal/animals is/are found on the Indus seals?
a) 1 only
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1,2 and 3

Ans: Bull, Elephant and Rhinoceros, are all shown the seals. Apart from that the markhor (a goat), tiger, Buffaloes, crocodile, fish, hare and dogs are other animals shown on the seals. In addition to that there are shown composite animals wherein like the head is that of a tiger but hind legs are of bull. The special animal is unicorn.

4) Which one of the following contains the famous Gayatri Mantra?
a) Rig Veda
b) Samveda
c) Yajurveda
d) Atharvadeda

Ans: a. Rig Veda.
Gayatri Mantra is found in Third Mandal of Rig Veda. The Mandal has 62 hymns and the tenth richa in the 62th hymn is the gyatri mantra. It is attributed to Rishi Vishvamitra. The Gayatri Mantra is addressed to god Savitar. The rest of the hymns of the third mandal at attributed Agni and Indra. It being in the third Mandal, hence, it belongs to the core part of the Rig Veda as the first and the tenth mandals are considered to be the latter additions. It is called gayatri because of the meter used to chant is gayatri. The second name is Savitri Mantra, after the name of the god who is invoked in this mantra. (Savitar is shown as an aspect of Usha – a goddess whereas in most of the books checked, Savitri is shown as male divinity and thus an aspect of Surya). Savitri Mantra is repeated again and again in numerous upnishads. It has been widely praised and interepreted by leading brains of India like Swami Vivekananda, S Radhakrishanan, J. Krishnamurthi and many others.
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5) The famous phrase “tattvamasi” is found in which one of the following Upanishads?
a) Chandogya
b) Mundaka
c) Mandukya
d) Isavasya
Ans: a. Chandogya Upnishad.
Tattvamasi literary means You Are That. Linguistically correct version is Thou art That.
It is an utterance in the dialogue between Uddalaka Aruni and Shvetaketu. Shvetaketu was son of Uddalaka.

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6) In which one of the following Smritui is found the statement: “the royal charters were written on cloth or copper plate?
a) Manusmruti
b) Parasharasmruti
c) Yagnyavalkyasmruti
d) Shankhasmruti
Ans: C Yagnyavalkyasmruti.
The statement is taken from Yagnyavalkya Samruti from Book 1, page 316. It is mentioned in the book of D. C. Sircar on page 66, of the book titled Indian Epigraphy. The book was published in1965 by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. ISBN no 81-208-1166-6. In the chapter III titled Writing Materials, Dr. Sircar has elaborated on the epigraphy and the material used for writing.

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7) The famous Dasarajna (battle of ten kings) is mentioned in
a) Rigveda
b) Yajurveda
c) Samaveda
d) None of the above
Ans: a. Rigveda.
The battle of ten kings is mentioned in Rig Veda, Mandal 7, hymn 83. Suda of Trtsu family of Bharta Tribe fought against ten kings on the River Purushani that is present River Ravi. Bharata Tribe was assisted by Vashishta and the ten kings were assisted by Vishvamitra. The hymns in which the battle and victory is mentioned invoked Indra and Varun.
The ten tribes were Alina, Anu, Bhrigu, Bhalana, Dasa or Dasyu, Druhyu, Matsya, Parshu, Purus, Pani or Parnis.

The King Suda killed Bheda, one of the independent commander of a tribe without a king.
King Suda was grandson of Devodasa Atithigva . (Mentioned in Devadatta Ramkrishana Bhandarkar's Some Aspects of Ancient Culture' published from Madras.)

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8) In which Vedic Sukta is found the reference to the orgin of the four Varnas?
a) Ushas
b) Purusha
c) Nasadiya
d) Aranyani
Ans: b, Purusha Sukta

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9) Which one of the following dramas was written by Sriharsha?
a) Kundamala
b) Priyadarshika
c) Karpuramanjari
d) Malati – Madhava
Ans: Sri Harsha wrote Priyadarshika. His other important works were Ratanvali. Both of them are plays.
In Priyadarshika, it is about the love story of Vatsaraja Udayana with princess Priyadarshika. It is written under the influence of the Kalidasa Malavikagnimitram. (Mentioned in History of Indian Theater 3 Volumes by Manohar Laxman Varadpande.)
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10) Against which republican state did Ajatashatru fight for more than 16 years to establish Megadhan Suzerainty over Eastern India?
a) Mallas of Pava and Kushinara
b) Videhas of Mithilai
c) Lichhavis of Vaishali
d) Koliyas of Ramagrama

Ans: c Lichchavis of Vaishali.
Ajatsatru had raised Magadha Empire by annexing 36 republican states. The major monarchies which he annexed was Kosala, and Vats. He fought the 16 years wars against the Vrijji of Vishali. Vriji was ruled by a confederacy of five tribes among which Lichchavis were one of the dominating tribe. Lichchavi Republic was at that time represented by Chetaka. (derived from multiple articles on Wikipedia).
In Jain accounts, Bimbisara, father of Ajatasatru is mentioned as Srenika and Ajatasatru as Kunika.

Mallas of Pava and Kushinara:
Mallas were one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. These Mahanajanapadas are mentioned in Anguttara Nikaya of Tripitaka. They occupied the North Central India. It was conquered by Bhima, one of the five Pandus. Their region was divided into nine territories each held by a confederation of clans. Two of the important confederacies had their capital at Kushinara and Pava respectively. Kushinara is present modern Kasia near Gorakhpur and Pava is present modern Padrauna near Kasia. Mahatama Buddha took his last meal at Kushinara. Lord Mahavira took his last meal at Pava or Pavapuri. Mahatama Buddha fell ill at Pava and died in Kushinara. Mahavira took Nirvana at Pava Puri. At the time of the death of Lord Buddha, King Sastipal Mal was ruling at Kushinara.

Mallas are also mentioned in Manusamriti under the category of Vratya Kshatriya.

In Buddhist literature, Mahaparinirbbana Suttanta, they are called Vashista Kshatriya.

Mallas had both form of governments, monarchical as well as republican, at different times. They were also annexed to Magadhan Empire after the death of Buddha.

Videha of Mithilai:
Videha was the kingdom of Seeradwaj Janak, the father of Sita. Mithila was the capital of Videha. The rulers of the Videha were called Janak. The rulers were known for their Vedic knowledge and most of them had been established scholars. The Mithila is present Janakpur in Nepal. The agriculture seems to be the major economic activity of this kingdom. Seeradwaj himself had obtained Sita with the help of a plough from the womb of land. Sita was married to Raghava Ram, the prince of Kosala. Kosala was one of the monarchy annexed by Magadha during the reign of Ajatsatru. The sisters of Sita were also married to the brothers of Raghava Ram. Therefore, Videha was associated with Kosala.

Koliyas of Ramagrama
Koliya was a republican clan having equal status with Sakya clan. Yashodhara, wife of Prince Siddharta (Buddha) belonged to Koliya. The Chief of Koliya was Suppabuddha and father of Yashodhara. The Koliya clan had two capitals namely Ramagrama and Devadaha. A stupa of remains of Buddha stands at Ramagrama in Bhairahawa in Nepal. It is the only undisturbed stupa.
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11) The Mahayana Buddhism had two philosophical schools. Which of the following belonged to Mahayana Buddhism?
a) Madhyamika and Yogachara
b) Vijnanavada and Sthaviravada
c) Mahasanghika and Theraveda
d) Acharyavada and Sarvastivada

Ans: a: Madhyamika and Yogachara

According to I-ching's report from India (A. D. 691), Mahayana Buddhism was divided into two schools, the Madhyamika and Yogacara. The main author of Madhyamika school was Nagarjuna.
Other popular name of Madhyamika is Shunyavada. In English translations, it repeatedly termed as Buddhist philosophy or Mahayana Philosophy of Emptiness.
Madhyamika originated with Nagarjuna. Nagarjuna was born around 150 AD in Guntur District of Andhra Pardesh.

Yogachara school of Mahayana developed around 4c. AD. In Sanskrit, it is also called Vigyana Vada. The main text of Yogachara Mahayana is Sandhinirmochana Sutra. The main scholars of this school of Mahayana were Vasubandhu and Asanga. Vasubandhu and Asanga were half brothers.

Vijnanavada and Sthaviravada
Vijnanavada or Vigyanavada is the other name of the theory which is given under Yogachara philosophy of Mahayana. It means Consciousness only theory.

Sthaviravada: Sthaviravada is a Sanskrit word for the Pali word Theravada. Theravada of Sthaviravada is the oldest or the traditionalist school of Buddhism. It is also known as the Teaching of the Elders school. Theravada and Mahasinghika were the schools which developed between the second and third Buddhist council. The first Buddhist council was held in the year when Buddha passed away. It took place in 486 BC. The second council took place in 350 BC. The third council took place 250 BC during the reign of Asoka. The first schism took place between second and third great councils.

Mahasanghika and Theraveda
Mahasanghika and Theravada are the two break up schools of Buddhism. The break up took place between the second and third Great Councils. The head of Mahasanghikas was Mahadeva. The origin of these two schools is mentioned in Mahavamsa.

Acharyavada and Sarvastivada
Sarvastivada is Sanskrit term. The Pali term is Sabbatthivada. It means all exist theory. It is the oldest form of Buddhism which existed along with Theravada (The sayings of the elder.)

Acharyavada is another term for Mahasanghika. The first council was held in Rajagriha. The second at Vaisali. The third at Pataliputra during the reign of Asoka. The third council of Pataliputra was held after the rise of Mahasanhika or Acharyavada. (James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 13, pp 210.)
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12) Who was the twenty second Tiruthankara?
a) Parsvanatha
b) Rishabha
c) Aristhanemi
d) Neminatha
Ans: Neminatha, d
According to Jain religion, there are 24 Trithankaras. The first Trithankara was Rishab. Muni Rishab is mentioned in Rig Veda also. According to Digambaras, all the 24 Trithankaras were men. However, according to Shavetambars, 19th Trithankara, Mallinath was a woman. Parsvanatha was twentry third Trithankar. Mahavira was the twenty fourth Trithankar.
Arithanemi is another name of Neminatha. Neminatha, the 22nd Trinthankara, the cousin of Shri Krishna, is also called Bhagwan Aristhanemi. His name also appears in Rig Veda as that of Adinath Rishab.
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13) Directions for erecting stupas and Chaityas, and an account of the contest for
buddha’s Relics to deposit in them is found for the first time in
a) Milindapanha
b) Majjhim Nikaya
c) Mahaparinibbana Sutta
d) Jnanaprasthana Sutra
Ans: C Mahaprinibbana Sutta (Pali). It is part of Vinay Sutta. Vinay Sutta is part of Tripitakka.
In it, the last days of Buddha and contest between the different Bhikkshu at the time of Parinirvana is given. It is a long one.
There is another Mahayana Maha Parinivana Sutta which is in Sanskrit. They are two separate books.
Milindapanha: It is also a Buddhist text written in c. 100 BC. It consists of dialogue between Menander I, the Bactrian king with Nagasena. In some of the Pali canons, it is included in the Khuddaka Nikaya.

Majjhim Nikaya: The Sutta Pittaka of Tripitaka of Theravada school, consists of five Nikayas. The second Nikaya is called Majjhim Nikaya. It consists of dialogue between Buddha and his chief disciples.
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14) What is the modern name of Kundagrama Where Mahavira was born?
a) Vaishali
b) Patana
c) Basukunda
d) Paithan
Ans: C. Basukunda or Basu Kunda, a village in Vaishali district.
Vaishali was the capital of Vajjis or Virjis. The Vajjis gave name to the Vajji Janapada. This fact is mentioned in Bhagavati Sutra of Jains and Anguttra Nikaya (Part of Tripitaka) of Buddhists. It is also referred to by Panini and Kautilya. The Vajji Mahajanapada consisted of eight clans. The four leading clans were Vajjis, Lichchavis, Jnatrikass and Videhas. Lord Mahavira was born in Jnatrikass clan which is also mentioned as tribe in numerous books.

Paithan or Parishtana is a city in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. It was capital of Satavahana Empire. It has found reference even in a Grecian book Periplus Maris Ertharaei or Periplus of Erythraean Sea written by an annonymous writer somewhere around 150 AD.
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15) In Buddhism what does Patimokkha stand for ?
a) A description of Mahayana Buddhism
b) A description of Hinayana Buddhism
c) The rules of the Samgha
d) The questions of King Menander
Ans: c. The rules of Samgha.
It is rule of discipline for the Buddhist monks included in Vinaya Pitaka. It is part of Theravada literature. There are 227 rules for Bikkhus and 311 for Bhikkhunis. It is part of Suttavibhanga included in Vinaya Pitaka got compiled by Maha Kassapa and Ananda when there arose some dispute because of monks like Subhadda.

The description of the Mahayana Buddhism is given in Mahayana Sutras. However, the Hinayana Buddhists and many scholars call them heretic sayings.
The description of the Hinayana Buddhism is generally considered to be given in the Palli cannons. The most accepted source is Sutra Pitaka, the first part of Tripitaka.

Milinda Panaho is the book on the questions of King Menander. The questions by Menander or Milind were put to Nagasena. It is part of the Khuddak Nikaya which again is the part of the Tripitaka.
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16) According to Mathura pillar inscription Uditacharya consecrated two Sivalingas named
a) Gutteshwara and Kadambeshwara
b) Nageshwara and Naganatha
c) Kapileshwara and Upmiteswara
d) Nanjundeshwara and Shrishaileswara
Ans: c. Kapileshwara and Upmiteswara.
Mathura Pillar inscription belongs to Chandragupta II. Uditacharya was follower of Pasupata Sect.(four in total). He is considered founder of the Pasupata sect, one of the oldest Shaivite Sect. The Mathura Pillar inscription was written in 380 AD.

Uditacharya declares himself to be the tenth descendent of Bhagvat Kaushika, the founder of Maheshvara sect. This fact appears in Vayu Purana and Linga Purana. Bhagvat Kaushika was the disciple of Lakuli, the real Siva Maheshvara. The two Sivalinga were attributed to the teachers of Acharya Upendra.
(This question has also appeared in UGC/NET question number of times.)

Kadambeshwara Temple is a Historical Temple of Banavasi Kadamba age. This is in the village called Heggarani (which means Hegeya Rana - The war field of Hegge, in the vicinity of Kadambas Territory in Karnataka. The temple enshrines the Lord Ganesha.
Gutteshwara or Kutteshwara is a village in Kundapura in Karnataka State. The place is more popular for the lake of that name and the temple of Lord Shiva. It is also called Kotilingeshwara temple . There are other temples dedicated to other deities also.

Nageshwara and Naganatha:
Nageshwara or Nageswara Jyotirlinga is one of the 12 Jyotirlinga mentioned in the Shiva Purana. The main temple is in Dwarka in Gujarat. The second temple, which is also called the Negeshwara Jyotirlinga and called as Nagnath temple, is in Aundha in Maharashtra. There is a third temple having the same significance and it is called Jageshwara temple at Almora in Uttrakhand state. The Jageshwara temple is considered as the first Jyotirlinga on the earth.

Nanjundeshwara and Shrishaileswara
Nanjundeshwara is a Shiva Temple at Nanjangud town, south of Mysore. It is situated on the banks of Kabini rive, a tributary of Kaveri River in Karnataka State. The town became popular during Ganga dynasty. Later Chola dynasty took over in 11th century. The temple of Nanjundeshwara Temple is an important landmark there. It is one of the biggest temple in Karnataka with numerous small temples dotted around the main temple. The Wodeyars and Tipu Sultan extended liberal patronage to the temple.
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17) Pindakara under the Mauryan ruler was a tax
a) A paid in labour
b) on irrigation
c) On non – agricultural produce
d) collected jointly from a village
Ans: d. collected jointly from a village.
Pindkara was one of the four taxes which were being collected since the days of Mahajanapada. Initially it was a voluntary contribution in form of a fistful grain at a yagya. Apart from that, there were Shadbhaga that was 1/6 of the produce. Senabhaktam, the tax charged for using the services of the troops.
However, this tax has not been mentioned in the post Mauryan period or Gupta period. Hence, it was collected upto Mauryan period. But it was never imposed on the individual. It was collected from the village as a whole.
The tax on irrigation was Udakabhagam. Apart from that, the tax was levied on the irrigation from wells if the water was drawn by hand and it was called hastaparvartimam. When the water was used for irrigation by withdrawing it from well with the help of Bullocks, then Skandhaparvartimam tax was imposed. They were all irrigation taxes. They were upto ¼ of the produce. The taxes were further differentiated if the water was drawn from a river, tank or lakes.
Shulka is a common term for the tax collected on non-agricultural produce. It was also imposed on trading activity. Secondly, it was a local tax. It was not similar to toll tax which was levied on the commodities coming from outside the regions. Hence, shulka and toll were different taxes and they could be paid and collected collectively. It was tax generally paid by the merchants.
Visti and simhanaka were the two taxes which were paid in labour to the Mauryan ruler. They were basically a tax similar to income, which a person was not in a position to pay in money or other form. He was then liable to pay in form of labour to the king. All the classes and castes were liable to pay such type of labour to the ruler. It was meant to get the services of the artisans which were highly valued during the ancient period. Vishti was a cooperative contribution by all the people for the common cause. When it became a compulsion and the ruler made the artisans to work for them under command and force, then it was called Begar.

Corroborated
(Public finance in Ancient India By K. R. Sarkar.)
(For further material Check Notes and Compilation (Book) by Sumir Sharma) For the notes Contact Iqbal Dua at 9814936936, AooG Enterprises, 36 E, Sarabha Nagar, Ludhiana. or write to us at cshistory at the rate of gmail dot com


18) Consider the following places:
1. Ahiraura 2. Dhauli 3. Girnar
At which of the above place/places do Asoka’s rock edicts occur?
a) 1 only
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans: 1, 2, and 3. D.
Ahriarua is Jhansi District of Uttar Pardesh.
Dhauli is in Orissa more famous of Rock Edict XiV and Kalinga war.
Girnar is in Junagarh District of Gujarat.
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19) Who of the following deciphered the Brahmi script?
a) William jones
b) James prinsep
c) John Marshall
d) E.J.H.Mackay
Ans: James Prinsep: b
James Prinsep was an assay-master in Indian Government Mint, Calcutta. In addition to that he had interest in inscriptions, philology and numismatics. At Calcutta Mint, he had worked under Dr. H. H. Wilson, a known sanskrit scholar and orientalist in his times. He also remained the secretary of Asiatic Society of Bengal. He was also a qualified architecture.
He had won a place in history of India when he deciphered the Brahmi on Ashokan inscription in 1837. Later, in 1915, when it was further collaborated from finding on the inscription that the Devanam Piya Piyadasi and Asoka refers to the same person, it was well confirmed that the inscriptions belong to Asoka.

William Jones: William Jones, generally written as Sir William Jones, was founder of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. He was an English Philologist. He knew 28 languages. The name of his father was also William Jones, who was a known mathematician of his times. He is also famous as an orientalist. He translated Kalidasa AbhigyanaShakultanam into English. He encouraged Charles Wilkins to translate Bhagvat Gita into English.

John Marshall: John Marshall was Director General of Archeological Survey of India from 1902 (Year of founding during the period of Lord Curzon as the Viceroy of India) to 1928. It was during his tenure that the sites of Harappa and Mohenjodaro were excavated and forgotten civilization of Indus Valley came into light before the world.

E. J. H. Mackay: EJH MacKay was a veteran archeologist who had earlier worked on Egypt under the supervision of Sir Flinders Petrie. He took over from Sir John Marshall for continuing the excavation at Mohenjodaro. He died on October 2, 1943 at the age of 63. He was awarded Watumull Prize in 1945 by American Historical Association posthumously.
(Death and award source: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v157/n3982/pdf/157220b0.pdf)
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20) In which one among the following edicts of Ashoka, his Kalinga war is mentioned?
a) Piller edict I
b) Pillar edict VII
c) Rock edict XI
d) Rock edict XIII
Ans: Rock Edit XIII ; c
The contents of the Rock Edict reads as follows:
Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, conquered the Kalingas eight years after his coronation. One hundred and fifty thousand were deported, one hundred thousand were killed and many more died (from other causes). After the Kalingas had been conquered, Beloved-of-the-Gods came to feel a strong inclination towards the Dhamma, a love for the Dhamma and for instruction in Dhamma. Now Beloved-of-the-Gods feels deep remorse for having conquered the Kalingas.
Indeed, Beloved-of-the-Gods is deeply pained by the killing, dying and deportation that take place when an unconquered country is conquered. But Beloved-of-the-Gods is pained even more by this -- that Brahmans, ascetics, and householders of different religions who live in those countries, and who are respectful to superiors, to mother and father, to elders, and who behave properly and have strong loyalty towards friends, acquaintances, companions, relatives, servants and employees -- that they are injured, killed or separated from their loved ones. Even those who are not affected (by all this) suffer when they see friends, acquaintances, companions and relatives affected. These misfortunes befall all (as a result of war), and this pains Beloved-of-the-Gods.
There is no country, except among the Greeks, where these two groups, Brahmans and ascetics, are not found, and there is no country where people are not devoted to one or another religion.[26] Therefore the killing, death or deportation of a hundredth, or even a thousandth part of those who died during the conquest of Kalinga now pains Beloved-of-the-Gods. Now Beloved-of-the-Gods thinks that even those who do wrong should be forgiven where forgiveness is possible.
Even the forest people, who live in Beloved-of-the-Gods' domain, are entreated and reasoned with to act properly. They are told that despite his remorse Beloved-of-the-Gods has the power to punish them if necessary, so that they should be ashamed of their wrong and not be killed. Truly, Beloved-of-the-Gods desires non-injury, restraint and impartiality to all beings, even where wrong has been done.
Now it is conquest by Dhamma that Beloved-of-the-Gods considers to be the best conquest.[27] And it (conquest by Dhamma) has been won here, on the borders, even six hundred yojanas away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni.[28] Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dhamma. Even where Beloved-of-the-Gods' envoys have not been, these people too, having heard of the practice of Dhamma and the ordinances and instructions in Dhamma given by Beloved-of-the-Gods, are following it and will continue to do so. This conquest has been won everywhere, and it gives great joy -- the joy which only conquest by Dhamma can give. But even this joy is of little consequence. Beloved-of-the-Gods considers the great fruit to be experienced in the next world to be more important.
I have had this Dhamma edict written so that my sons and great-grandsons may not consider making new conquests, or that if military conquests are made, that they be done with forbearance and light punishment, or better still, that they consider making conquest by Dhamma only, for that bears fruit in this world and the next. May all their intense devotion be given to this which has a result in this world and the next.
(Source: http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html#FOURTEEN)
(Copyright: The contents appear here in confirmation with the copyright of the site with its origin in Srilanka. Apart from that, the references by the original author are to D. R. Bhandarkar, R. Mookerji, A Sen, and D. C. Sircar in which similar and near to same phrases describing the contents of the inscriptions are given.)

Further elaborations:
Pillar Edict I:
It is about the stopping of the animal killing during festivals and abstaining of the non-vegetarian food by the king himself.
The contents are translated as follows:
Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, has caused this Dhamma edict to be written.[1] Here (in my domain) no living beings are to be slaughtered or offered in sacrifice. Nor should festivals be held, for Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, sees much to object to in such festivals, although there are some festivals that Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, does approve of.
Formerly, in the kitchen of Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, hundreds of thousands of animals were killed every day to make curry. But now with the writing of this Dhamma edict only three creatures, two peacocks and a deer are killed, and the deer not always. And in time, not even these three creatures will be killed.
(copyright: As given under the elaboration of the answer above. )

Pillar Edict VII:
It is about the religious freedom to all and peaceful co-existence among the members of the different religions:
The contents of the edict are translated as follows:
Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, desires that all religions should reside everywhere, for all of them desire self-control and purity of heart.[14] But people have various desires and various passions, and they may practice all of what they should or only a part of it. But one who receives great gifts yet is lacking in self-control, purity of heart, gratitude and firm devotion, such a person is mean.

(Copyright: As given under the elaboration of the answer above.)

Pillar Edict XI:
In this inscription, Asoka had defined the real meaning of his dhamma. Kindly read it discreetly. No where any Buddhist instruction is given. It can be noted for short notes for main question paper.

The contents of the edict are translated as follows:
Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, speaks thus:[20] There is no gift like the gift of the Dhamma,[21] (no acquaintance like) acquaintance with Dhamma, (no distribution like) distribution of Dhamma, and (no kinship like) kinship through Dhamma. And it consists of this: proper behavior towards servants and employees, respect for mother and father, generosity to friends, companions, relations, Brahmans and ascetics, and not killing living beings. Therefore a father, a son, a brother, a master, a friend, a companion or a neighbor should say: "This is good, this should be done." One benefits in this world and gains great merit in the next by giving the gift of the Dhamma.

(Copyright: As given under the elaboration of the answer above.)


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21) The fact that the satavahanas did maritime trade and had naval power is proved from the availability of a special type of coin. ‘ship with double mast’. Which ruler of the dynasty was supposed to have issued these coins?
a) Simuka
b) Satakarni II
c) Gautamiputra Satakarni
d) Yajna Sri Satakarni
Ans: All the Options are incorrect. The correct answer is Vashistaputra Pulumayi.
A good description can be had from Dr. S. S. Sen books published by Willey Publication Kolkata.
Corrected Answer:
Ans: d: Yajna Sri Satakarni
Revised Answer:
Source: Reference S. N. Sen: Ancient Indian History and Civilization.
Page 124,
Yajna Sri Satakarni was the last great Satvahana ruler. He ruled for 29 years from 170 CE. (old version A.D.) He regained areas from western Kshatrapas of Saka rulers. He issued numerous silver coins which are testimony to the prosperity due to foreign trade and culmination of the conflict with Sakas.
Page 176: From the clues from Periplus of Erithyean sea, we learn that the Satvahana Empire had grown prosperous through commerical relations with Far East. Calliene of Periplus is the Kalyan of Deccan. In addition to that a pillar inscription of Yajna Satkarni is found at Chinna Ganjam in Guntur District.


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Ancient Indian History and Civilization
Early Hindu India: A Dynastic and Cultural History of Early Indian Civilization
Foundations of Indian Culture: Dimensions of Ancient Indian Social History
Ancient Indian History and Civilization


22) Which one of the following represents the ancient town of Vijayapuri of the Ikshvakus?
a) Amaravati
b) Nagarjunakonda
c) Vijayawada
d) Vizianagaram


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23) Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
a) Silappadikaram : Ilangovadigal
b) Manimekalai : Tirumazishy
c) Kural : Thiruvalluvar
d) Tirumadal : Tirumangai alwar
Silappadikaram is written by Ilango Adigal, a Jain monk. It is highly reputed epic in Tamil language.

Manimekalai is written by Sattanar, probably a contemporary of Ilalngo Adigal. Hence, option b is the answer as it is not rightly paired. Manimekalai is also one of the famous epic in Tamil literature.

Kural is a classic form of Tamil poetry. One of the best example of such poetry is Thirukkural which was written by Thiruvallur.


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24) Which sangam Literary work says that the Aryans introduced the ritual and ceremony of marriage (Karanam)?
a) Tolkappiyam
b) Balaputradeva
c) Chaudamani Varman
d) Sri mara vijaya Hunga varman

Ans: Tolkappiyam: a
Tolkappiyam is the grammar of Tamil Language. It is the earliest available book on the Tamil language which was probably written before third century BC and continued to be modified up to 10th century A. D. The marriage practice in Tamil literature is generally written as Vivaham or Kaliyanam.
The fact as given in the question is stated in the 'Ancient India' by R. C. Majumdar page 208 and with reference to 'A History of South India by K. A. N. Shastri', pp. 124. ff.
This is one of the MCQ, in which the right answer is the only book and rest of the options are either the name of the place or a person. Secondly, it was one of the most important book which has been asked in the exams again and again. Another two books Manimekalai written by Seethalai Saathanar and Silapathikaram have appeared again and again in the Prelims. Sangam literature usually gives two to three questions.

(For a brief note on Sangam literature consult the compilation by Sumir Sharma. Contact Iqbal Dua, 9814936936, AooG Enterprises, 36 E, Sarabha Nagar, Ludhiana. or write to us at cshistory at the rate of gmail dot com. A similar note can also be accessed at http://tamilpesum.blogspot.com/2009/01/sangams.html
The note of Sumir Sharma is compilation based on the leads given in the above mentioned article at Dravidanin mozhi)

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25) Match list – I with List – II and select the answer using the code given below the list
List – I                                     List – II
(Sangam Texts)      (Compiled by )
A. Aingurunuru        1. Rudra sarman
B. Ahananuru                 2. Nakkirar
C. Murugarrupadai 3. Nattattanar
D. Sirupunurruppadai              4. Gudalur kilar
a) A-3 B-2 C-1 D-4
b) A-3 B-1 C-2 D-4
c) A-4 B-2 C-1 D-3
d) A-4 B-1 C-2 D-3

Ans: A-4: Aingurunuru: It is a classic Tamil Poetic work, containing five hundred short poems. It is a part of the third Sangam (Kuttum) Literature Anthology named Ettuthokai. Aingurunuru contains stanzas of three lines. the aingurunuru means literally the short five hundred.

B:1: Perum-Devanar and Ahananuru was collected in present form by Rudrasarman. (References: “Some Contributions of South India to Indian Cutlure by S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar.)
Further, 'One of the most important of these collections which is known to Tamil Scholars under two names, Ahananuru, which means the 400 relating to 'erotics' (love poems) or Nedum-togai, meaning longer poems, was made by a Brahman Rudrasarman, the son of Uppurikudi Kilan of Madura at the instance of the Pandyan Ugrappervaludi.
C-2:
Nakkirar is the considered as the pre-eminent poet of the third Sangam. He is also known by different names as Kirar, Nakkirar, Narirkkirar. Kirar is his title because of his mastery over speech. He wrote Tiru murrugaarruppadai during the third Sangam under the patronage of the Pandya King Vangya (Vansha) Chudamani. ( Studies in Tamil Literature and History by Ramachandra Dikshitar).

D-3
Nattanttanar: Nattanar of Nallur wrote third idyll of Pattuppattu namely Chruplanaruu-paddi and Sirpanatru ppadai.



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26) The reign period of which one of the following Parthian rulers has been definitely fixed in the famous Takht–I–Bahi inscription?
a) Vonones
b) Maues
c) Gondophernes
d) Apollorius
Ans: C:Gondophernes:
(A good note on Wikipedia itself).
Takht-i-Bahi is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is ruins of Buddhist Monastery belonging to 1 c. BC (Before Common Era: BCE). It is located at Mardan in North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A village by the name Takht-i-Bahi is located near the ruins.
Gondophernes was the Parthian (Pallavas – not to be confused with Pallavas of South) king. He had ruled from Taxila. The Parthians had followed the Sakas (Scythians) invasion and preceded the invaded of Kushans. He ruled around 20 AD. He had placed an inscription at at Takht-i-Bahi. He had come into contact with Saint Thomas as per Dr. B. N. Puri.

Vonones was Indo-Scythian king who ruled from 75 to 65 BC in North Western India when they were being pushed back Chinese tribes coming from Central Asia generally called the great migration. (Kindly note: The latest researches based on Chinese account are changing the details of this post Mauryan and Kushan period. However, in India, you still find the earlier version and mostly the NCERT book of +2 level should be made the basis of the notes if one come across a book in which new researches are mentioned. In the mains, a question for 60 marks or 15 marks question appear again and again. Secondly, Saka is the official calendar which begins from 72 AD. (current eg 2010 minus 72 gives 1938 which is the official year in government calenders. In case of Vikrami eras, add 57 to the 2010 and it gives 2067 Vikrami).

Maues: Maues or Moga (A district in Punjab) was another Saka or Indo Scythian king. He ruled from 85 BC to 60 BC. He ruled in the area of present Afghanistan. Maues is mainly known for his silver coins which he minted at Taxila or Taksha Sila. He was succeeded in Taxila region by Vonones towards the south of Afghanistan.



Apollorius: No Idea




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27) Which one of the Sailendra kings built a monastery at Nalanda and requested the Pala emperor Devapala to grant five villages for its maintenance?
a) Dharnindravarman
b) Balaputradeva
c) Chaudamani Varman
d) Sri Mara Vijayan Hungavarman
Ans: Salendra king, Balaputradeva, was a king of Sumatra or Suvarna Dvipa. The fact in the question is mentioned on an inscription at Nalanda. The inscription belongs to 860 AD. At that time,
Devapala was Pala ruler. They ruled over Gaud or the present Bengal region. The Pala rulers were manly followers of Mahayana and Vajrayana school of Buddhism. They had been elected to the throne.
Dharanindravarman: He was the ruler of Khamer Empire (Present Camobodia) He ruled from 1107 to 1113 AD. The capital city was Angkor.
Chudamani Varman: He was the ruler of Kadaram. He sought permission from Raja Raja Chola to build a vihara in Negapatam. It was a Buddhist Vihara. Kadaram or Kedah kingdom was flourishing in Malaysia. It was popular as Sri Vijaya Empire of Sumatra.
(Reference: Some Contributions of the South India to Indian Culture by Krishnaswami Aiyangar Sakkottai. Pp 384-385)
Sri Mara Vijayan Hungavarman:(No Reference or Detail)


28) After Mahavira’s Death who among the following became the spiritual leader of Jainism?
a) Gautama Indrabhuti
b) Gosala
c) Sudharman
d) Jambuswami

Ans: c: Sudharman.

Lord Mahavira is said to have eleven principles disciples. They were also called Ganadharas. Nine of the Ganadharas had died during the life of Mahavira. Sudharman and Indrabhuti Gautama survived Mahavira. Sudharman became the head of the Jain congregation after Mahavira passed away. Most of the teachings of Mahavira has been attributed to the narration given by Sudharman as recorded in Angas He had taught those teaching to his disciple Jambusvamin. Thus many of the Jain canonical texts begins either as 'Thus Jamusavamin' or 'Thus it was heard from Sudharman'. This explanation is the part of the Jain history as told in Shvetambra sect. The historians generally accepted the Shvetambhara tradition version.



29) Which one of the following rulers assumed the title of Hazarat – I – Ala?
a) Balban
b) Alauddin Khalji
c) Mohammad bin Tughluq
d) Sher Shah Suri
Ans: Sher Shah Suri: d
Sher Shah Suri adopted this title in 1530. At that time, he was employed with Bihar administration. The Lohani family was ruling over Bihar. Muhammad Shah had promoted Sher Khan. But he died in 1528. By 1530, the responsibility of the administration devolved upon Sher Khan as he was the Vakil of the Administration. He was opposed by other Lohani nobles. In such a situation he took over the title Hazarat-i-Ala. Many historians had emphasised that it was his tenure as Hazrat-i-Ala at Bihar, which helped him to consolidate his position as well as learn the intricacies of ruling an empire which helped him later when he faced Humanyun and finally ousted him to become Sher Shah Suri. It was during this experience, he emerged as the leader of Afghans in India. (Advanced Study in the History of India by J L Mehta Sterlin Publication.)
Balban took the title of Zil-i-illahi.
Alauddin Khilji took the title of Sikander after he had conquered Gujarat with the help of Nusrat and Ulugh Khan and also defeated Mongols under Saldi with the help of Zafar Khan.

Mohammad bin Tughluq
He had been given the title of Ulugh Khan.


30) Who of the following did not serve Alauddin Khalji as commander in chief of army?
a) Alp Khan
b) Khizr Khan
c) Nusrat Khan
d) Zafar Khan
Ans: Khizr Khan: b

Alp Khan, Nusrat Khan and Zafar Khan formed the part of the group which worked with Alauddin Khilji to consolidate his empire. When Alauddin managed to occupy the throne in Delhi, he rewarded his core group with titles. Almas Beg was given the title of Ulugh Khan. Hizabr-ud-din was titled Zafar Khan. Zafar Khan was his main commander to pushed back the Mongols. Malik Sanjar was the given the title of Alp Khan. Malik Nusrat was titled Nusrat Khan.
(Important Note: The names coterie of four along with Alauddin (whose name was Ali Gurshap) had been the coming up as questions from time to time. Remember them as they may fetch you a question.)


31) What was Kharaj in the 13th century?
a) Tax on cultivation
b) Tax on land transfer
c) Waiver of the tax on land
d) Tax on irrigated lands
Ans: Kharaj: Tax on Cultivation: a
Nankar: Revenue free land. (Land and society in India: agrarian relations in colonial north bihar. By Bindeshwar Ram. )
Khidmat: the payment received by the zamindars for the services rendered to collect the reveue for the Mughal state. It was in the range of 2.5 to 10 %. (ibid: Bindeshwar Ram)


32) The foundation of which one of the following towns was not laid by Sultan Feroze Shah Tughluq?
a) Hissar
b) Ferozabad
c) Faridabad
d) Jaunpur
Ans: Faridabad: c
Faridabad was founded in A.D. 1607 by Shaikh Farid, treasurer of Jahangir, with the object of protecting the highway which passed through the town. Shaikh Farid built a fort, a tank and a mosque. Later, it becomes the headquaters of a pargana which was held in jagir by the Ballabgarh ruler.


33) Who of the following rulers was the contemporary of the Great Vaishnava saint Chaitanya in Bengal?
a) Shamsuddin IIya Shah
b) Sikandar Shah-II
c) Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah
d) Alauddin Hussain Shah
Ans: Alauddin Husain Shah: d
Alauddin Husain Shah was the founder of Husain Shahi Dynasty in Bengal. He was elected to the post of the Sultan by the leading nobles of Bengal in 1494. Highly romantacised stories about the earlier life of Alauddin Hussain Shah had been narrated by Joao-de-Barros, Krishandasa Kaviraj, Fariya Y Souza and Francis Buchanan Hamilton. However, a more accepted source on Haussain Shahi Dynasty is Riyaz-us-Salatin. He was an Arab from Macca. On his coins he had been named as Sultan Husain Shah bin Sayyid Ashraf-ul-Hasaini. He ruled upto 1519. His rule had been identified for having restored the law and order in Bengal. His administration was also known to have employed non-Muslims to the important posts in the administration. He was also famous for having patronized Shri Chaitnya.

Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah (1389-1409) was ruler of Illyas Shahi dynasty which ruled over Gaud (Bengal). Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah tried to invade Assam but did not succeed. On the other hand, Alauddin Hassain Shah was able to annex a part of Assam and extend the territories of Bengal.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu or Sri Chaitanaya was Great Vaishnava Saint of eastern India in the 16th century and contemporary of Guru Nanak. He was a social reformer and Bhakti saint. He was regarded as an incarnation of Lord Krishana. His followers are called Gaudiya Vaishnavas (taking the name from Gaud, the tradition name of Bengal). He authored Sikhsasatkam which is in Sanskrit. The title means the Eight verses of Instructions. Krishnadass Kaviraja Goswami, a known poet of Alauddin Husain Shah period wrote Chaitanya Charitamrita a biography of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. The Chaitnaya Charitamrita is written in Bangla.

Shamsuddin IIiyas Shah: Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah was the founder of Ilyas dynasty which ruled over Bengal in 14th century. Shamsuddin ruled from Pandua. He ruled from 1342 to 1358. He was succeeded by his son Sikandar Shah. During his reign, Firoze Shah Tughlaq ruled over the Delhi Sultanate.
Sikandar Shah II ruled as the 10 Ilyas ruler but only for two month. He was an obscure Sultan of this dynasty because there are a few sources about him achievements.


34) Consider the following
1. Kamind
2. Mahin
3. Kirpas
4. Shirinbaft
5. Salahati
Which of the above were kinds of cloth manufactured during the Sultanate period in India?
a) 2,4 and 5 only
b) 1,2 and 3only
c) 2,3 and 4 only
d) 1,2,3,4, and 5
Ans: 1,2,3,4 and 5.
Kamina: A coarse kind of cloth worn by the poor and dervishes. The main place of manufacturing was Awadh. According to Nizami it was the cheapest form of cloth in Ala-ud-din Khilji's cloth market at Delhi.
Mahin: It was a finer form of cloth worn byTurks and Soldiers.

Karipa was another fine form of cloth which was costlier than Mahin. It was rather finer calico. The rate of Karipa was double than Kamina. Hence, Kamind, Mahin and Kirpas were calico or white cotton cloth of different varieties.

Shirinbaft and Salahati were muslin cloth. It was so fine and costly that only nobles and rich man wore ite.

All the above form of textiles are given in a single paragraph in The Cambridge Economic History of India c. 1200 to c. 1750 edited By Dharam Kumar page 79, Part I, Chapter 3, Non-Agricultural Production and Urban Economy by Irfan Habib.


35) During medieval times, the term ‘pinjana’ referred to
a) Weaver’s loom
b) Cotton carder’s bow
c) Spinning wheel
d) None of the above
Ans: Cotton Carder's bow: b

pinjana is the name of Cotton carder's bow which probably reached India with Ghorian invasion.

Kargah is the weaver's loom.

Spinning wheel is called Charkah.


Kindly note: All the references for this question and the question no 34 about the variety of textile forms the part of a single chapter and that is Part I, Chapter 3, Non-Agricultural Production and Urban Economy by Irfan Habib included in the The Cambridge Economic History of India edited by Dharam Kumar. However, I will not recommend to read the whole book as such. It is a bulky volume. IGNOU notes are better option.


36) Abdur Razzak was sent as an ambassador to the court of Deva Raya II by
a) Sultan Alauddin of Iraq
b) Sultan Bahaman of Egypt
c) Sultan Shah Rukh of Khurasan
d) Sultan Bahzad of Turkey
Ans: Sultan Shah Rukh of Khurasan
Deva Raya II (1424-1446) was the emperor of Vijayanagar Empire from Sangam dynasty. He is considered as the greatest of the emperor of the Sangam dynasty. He was son of Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya. The writings of Abdur Razzak forms an important contemporary source on the achievements of Deva Raya II. Apart from Abdur Niccolo de Conti-a Venetian merchant, also visited India during his reign.

Also Check
Dictionary of History of India

37) Harihara II, in one of this inscriptions gives a detailed account of the military achievements of Bukka I.
Which one the following is that inscription?
a) Channaraya pattana inscription
b) Bitragunta grant
c) Penugonda inscription
d) Kondavidu grant
Ans: Channaraya pattan inscription: a
Channaraya pattana is town situated on Bangalore Hassan Road. The earlier name of the town was Kolatur. In 1600, Lakshmappa Nayak bestowed Kolatur as a jagir on his son named Channa Raya. Channa Raya was named after Channarayaswami, a name of Vishnu. Since then, the place is known as Channaraya pattana. Channaraya pattana is the second biggest taluk in Hassan district.

Bitragunta grant was issued by Sangama, son of Harihar I. It was grant of land to a Brahmin in Nellore district.

Penugonda inscription is displayed in the temple of Nagareshvaraswami. It is attributed to one Kothalinga of Komati tribe of Penugonda. Penugonda is described as one of the twelve towns built by Lord Vishkarma and present by Lord Shiva to Komatis.
Kondavidu grant belongs to Vijayanagar Empire. It is a temple grant specifying the items on which the tolls were to be given to the temple.

Also Check
Dictionary of History of India

38) Which one of the following books provides information on Humayun’s reign?
a) Tarikh-i-Rashidi
b) Tabaqat-i-Nasiri
c) Futuhus Salatin
d) None of the above
Ans: Tarikh-i-Rashidi: a,
Tarikh-i-Rashidi was written by Mirza Haider. In it, Mirza Haider had given an eye witness account of Battle of Kanauj. He was commander of one of the contingent in that battle. He was quite near Humanyun. Mirza Haider remained with Humanyun even when he lost his kingdom to Sher Shah Suri. His work is appreciated by modern scholars for its literary quality. The English translation of this title is 'A History of Moguls of Central Asia' by Elias and Rose.
Tabaqat-i-Nasiri : Tabaqat-i-Nasiri is the Autobiography of Muhammad bin Tughlaq (Ulugh Khan). Tabaqat means biographical notes. The book consists of twenty Three such biographical notes. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was known as a scholar also. (Regardless of the term used and made famous by Lanepole.) The books has imprint of his scholarship.

Futuhus Salatin : It was historic masanavi(a poetic form of writing) written by Khwaja Abdullah Malik Isami in 1350. The contents trace the history of Turkish rule in India from Ghaznavi to Muhammad Tughlaq. The book also discuss the establishment of Bahmani Kingdom. It was based on theory of divine intervention concept of writing therefore, suffers many shortcomings.

Also Check
Dictionary of History of India

39) Consider the following ancient tribes:
1. Anga
2. Gandhari
3. Vratya
Which of the above tribe/tribes existed during Vedic period
a) 1and 2
b) 2 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1,2 and 3
Ans: Anga, Gandhari, Vratya:
Anga first appear in Atharveda. They are mentioned with Gadharis and Mujavatas.

In Jain inscriptions, they belonged to the first group of the Aryan people.

In Anguttra Nikkaya, the Buddhist Tripitakas, Angas and Vratyas were among the sixteen Mahajanapadas.

Also Check
Dictionary of History of India

40) Who among the following was the famous Persian Master painter who came to India with Humayun?
a) Sayyid Ali Hamdani
b) Sayyid Ali Tabrezi
c) Mir Mohammad Hamadani
d) Muhammud Murad
Ans: Sayyid Ali Tabrezi: b
Mir Sayyid Ali Tabrezi and Khawaja Adbus Samad Shirazi were two miniature painters who met Humanyun when he had taken refuge at the court of Shah Tahmasp after forced to leave in India 1540 by Sher Shah Suri. When, Humanyun regained his control over Kabul, he called both of them from Iran. Humanyun is also famous for his liking for the paintings. It was his grandson, Jahangir who is more remembered for his appreciation of the art of painting.

Sayyid Ali Hamdani was a sufi saint who spread Islam in Kashmir. He came to Kashmir during the rule of Sultan Qutb-ud-din. Islam had already established its place in Kashmir by that time.

Mir Mohammad Hamadani was son of Sayyid Ali Hamdani.

Also Check
Dictionary of History of India

41) In the context of disintegration of Mughal Empire, who of the following was deposed by Wazir Ghazi-ud–din Imad-ul- mulk?
a) Muhammad Shah
b) Ahmad Shah
c) Alamgir-II
d) Akbar-II
Ans: Ahmad Shah: b
For details check Chronology of Later Mughals
Special Notes: Later Mughals continue to find place in the Prelims questions. Visit the suggested link and try to remember the chronological order of Mughals kings from Bahadur Shah I to Bahadur Shah II. Also try to reflect on the issues that what events were taking place in case of each of the king. No doubt, all such events were related to decline of the Mughal Empire and the rise the Company Empire.


42) Among the following what was the name of the lowest unit of shershah’s administration?
a) Jagir
b) Pargana
c) Mahal
d) Sarkar
Ans: c: Mahal
For details check: Sarkar and its sub divisions


43) The capital city of Ahmedabad was built by Ahmad Shah on the old side of
a) Sarkhej
b) Sidhpur
c) Idar
d) Asawal
Ans: Asawal: d
Ahmedabad was founded in 1411 as a capital of Gujarat Sultanate under the Muzaffarid dynasty headed by Ahmad Shah. Asawal is also called Ashaval and has remained under habitation since the 11th century. Asawal was ruled by Bhil King who was thrown out by Karndeva I, the Solanki ruler of Anhilwara and established Karnavati. A village Aslali, changed form of Asawal still exist near Ahmedabad. It is on the banks of the river Sabarmati.

Sarkhej: Sarkhej in another town near Ahmedabad. It more popular for the tomb of Sheikh Ahmed Kattu. Shah Ahmed Shah of Muzaffarid was an ardent follower of Sheikh Ahmed Kattu and regarded him as his spiritual guide. Sheikh Ahmed was famous by his other name as Ganj Bakhsh which means one who bestows wealth. It is also on the banks of river Sabarmati.
Sarkhej had also been popular for the produce of Indigo. It is recorded in Ain that indigo was exported to Turkey from Sarkhej through Surat. Later, when indigo was in demand by the European traders who had reached the shores of India, they also had recorded the importance of this place for the produce of Indigo.

Sidhpur: Sidhpur is also known as Sri-Sthal. It was also known as Vindusara as per the Bhabvat Purana. It is on the banks of river banks of river Sarasvati. It is mentioned in Rigveda as Dashu village. It is associated with Rishi Vyashya. Presently, it falls in Patan District.
The city reached it zenith of importance during the reign of Solanki kings. It was made a capital by Sidhraj Jai Singh (1019-1043). It was destroyed by Ghazni during his 25 raid when he looted Somnath. It again rose to prominence under the rule of Akbar. It is also a subject of study by Nainasi, the Medieval period historian.

Idar: Idar falls in Sabarkantha district.



44) Who was the ruler of Malwa, when it was invaded by Adham Khan and Pir muhmmad Khan in 1561?
a) Dilawar Khan
b) Shujaat Khan
c) Mahmud Khilji
d) Baz Bahadur
Ans: Baz Bahadur: d
Baz Bahadur: Baz Bahadur was musician-king of Malwa. Akbar had sent Adham Khan as the main commander against Baz Bahadur in 1560. Adham Khan was assisted by Mulla Pir Muhammad Khan, as second in command. Baz Bahadur was defeated at Sarangpur. His wife, Rupamati, known for her beauty and artistic accomplishment committed suicide by taking poison on the defeat of Baz Bahadur.

Dilawar Khan: (It is presumed that the name referred here is from Mughal Period): Dilawar Khan was son of Daulat Khan Lodhi. Daulat Khan had invited Babur to invade Delhi and worked against Ibrahim Lodhi. Daulat Khan had sent Dilawar Khan to Babur to plan an invasion on Delhi. Ghazi Khan was brother of Dilawar Khan. Dilawar Khan and Ghazi Khan did not accept the strategies of their father.

Shujaat Khan: Shujaat Khan was father of Baz Bahadur. He was governor of Malwa during Sur dynasty under Muhammad Adil Shah Sur.
Mahmud Khilji:


45) Consider the following statements:
1) Aurangzeb banned sijda.
2) Aurangzeb promoted the practice of inscribing kalmia on coins
Which of the statements given above is/are correct
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: 1 only, Aurangzeb banned Sijda: a
Sijda: It is form of respect paid to Emperor or high authority or Divine persona. The person doing sijda performs it by touching the ground with the forehead as act of adoration or worship to God.
In the court of Akbar, there were three major forms of slautation namely Kornish, Taslim and Sijda. All were considered un-islamic practices by Sunni Ulemas. Hence, Aurangzeb discontinued the Sijda which was more criticized by Sunni Ulemas. It was a practice more popular with Sufis. Even Akbar had banned this practice. Another word for Sijda is Zaminbos.

Kalimah or Kalima, in Arabic literary means a word. In Islam Kalima generally spoken as la ilaha illallah muhammadur-rasulullah. The English tranlsation of Kalima is that there is no god but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God.
Reading of Kalimah is one of the five main pillars of Islam following. These five faiths are Shahadah i.e. complete faith, Salat i.e. prayers, Sawm i.e. fasting, Zakat (giving alms) and Hajj. Kalima is the core of Shahadah.


46) Which one of the following Kingdoms was annexed to the Mughal empire during the reign of Shahjahan?
a) Golkonda
b) Bijapur
c) Ahmednagar
d) Khandesh
Ans: Ahmednagar: c
Bijapur and Golkonda were conquered by Aurganzeb.
Khandesh was the only Deccan conquest of Akbar. (Remember this statement. It may fetch a question next year or any future examination. It was the only conquest in Deccan states by Akbar. Akbar had spent a major part of his reign in executing his North West frontier policy. On the other hand Aurangzeb spent half of his reign (since 1678) in South. The examiners keep on testing this fundamental Mughal Policy in the region.


47) Among the following kingdoms of medieval India, which one was founded earliest?
a) Bahamani
b) Golkonda
c) Jaunpur
d) Khandesh
Ans: Bahamani: a

Bahamani kingdom, the Shiite Kingdom in South India was founded by Ala-ud-din Hassan Bahman Shah during the regin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

Golkonda was established in 1518 on the disintegration of Bahamani Kingdom. Golkonda was one of the five kingdoms which were formed out of Bahamani Kingdom. The other four kingdoms were Bidar, Berar, Ahmadnagar, and Bijapur. They are collectively called as Deccan Sultanates.

Khandesh was established by in 1388. It was conquered by Akbar in 1601 and made a province of Mughal empire. (Refer to my note to question no 46 within in this section.)

Jaunpur Dynasty was established in 1394. It was ruled over by Sharqi dynasty. Sharq means the east. Its founder Malik Sarwar was given the title Malik us Sharq which means the owner of east. From there, the dynasty was known s Sharqi dynasty. However, the rule of the dynasty was ended by Sikander Lodhi in 1479.

Related Question:
Year 1996:
The title Sultan-us Sharq was assumed by the rulers of
a) Assam b) Bengal c) Jaunpur d) Orissa
Ans: Jaunpur: c
In the above reference, the term is Malik us Sharq which had been taken from an authoritative book. The question of the commission has used the term Sultan us Sharq.

The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History (Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization)
The Delhi Sultanate: The History and Culture of the Indian People
Early medieval state: A study of Delhi Sultanate
History of Delhi SultanateSuccession in the Delhi Sultanate

48) In the context of medieval India, which one of the following terms indicates the land measurement?
a) Taqavi
b) Mauza
c) Jarib
d) Abwab
Ans: Jarib:c
Jarib: It is an Arabic word. It means a measure of land area. In Persian the similar term is garib or gari. It generally refers to measured arable land/
Jarib also means measuring chain or rope.

Mauza: It can be simply called a village. It is the term used for a village which had been recorded in the revenue record. Hence, it means that the village which has it measured land entered in the revenue record.
Refer to Dictionary of History of India by the same blogger.

Taqavi consists of loans given for assisting agricultural operations. Or Simply an Agricultural Loan. This meaning is still valid.

Abwab: Depending on the nature and time of the collection, Abwab means a tax or fees. Irfan Habin writes that it was exaction of officials in addition to the jama.


49) With reference to Mughal period, the term ‘hasil’ refers to
a) Revenue assessed on the basis of type of soil climate and economic conditions of the area
b) Revenue assessed on the basis of crop cultivated
c) Revenue actually collected or realized from the land
d) particular unit of land measurement
Ans: Revenue actually collected or realized from the land was recorded as Hasil. The actual assessed revenue was called mal and the tax of making the assessment or mal was called mal-o-jihat.



50) Virji Vohra, Malaya Chetti Abdul Ghafoor Bohra were some of the
a) Important officials under the Delhi Sultans
b) Important poets of royal court of Bijapur
c) Important writers of Hyderabad kingdom
d) Richest merchants during the Mughal period
Ans: Richest Merchants during the Mughal period. d

Virji Vohra was a leading saraf based at Surat. It is important to remember that the expedition of the Aurganzeb against Dara Shikoh was mainly financed by financers like Virji Vohra. Secondly, the services of sarafs like Virji Vohra were also used to transfer funds through hundis to the army fighting away from Delhi.

Malaya Chetti: Malaya Chetti was the richest Merchant who had direct dealing with Dutch company. He started dealing with the Dutch company in 1608. He was based in Pulicat. He is one of such person whose life has been well documented by the historians.

Abdul Ghafoor Bohra: He based in Surat and was merchant of hardwares. He was one of leading financier during the reign of Aurangzeb.


51) Who of the following advised the British East India Company to seek from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam, a ‘sanad for the Diwani of Bengal ?
a) Manik Chand
b) Omi Chand
c) Raja Daulat Ram
d) Maharaja Raj ballabh
Ans: Ans: Maharaja Raj Ballabh: d

Maharaja Raj Ballabh Sen, the Dewan (Diwan of Dhakka) of Serajuddaula, who conspired to overthrow the nawab with the help of Robert Clive and bring in the English in 1757. Raja Raj Ballahb Sen was a Vaidya, a community which dominated the intellectual and political scence in pre-colonial and colonial India in Bengal. Even people like Amitya Sen, the Noble Leuterate and Sushmita Sen, the Miss Universe and actress of Mumbai Film industry belong to Vaidya community of Bengal. (Note: Stories and tit-bits are just added to be used as meomry tags and mnemonics. You may find similar additional references from different sources in the compilation of Sumir Sharma.) (http://www.sen4sen.com/More%20History.htm)
Maharaja Raj Ballabh was an accomplice of Mir Jaffer and Ghaseti Begum. Krishan Ballabh, son of Maharaja Raj Ballabh had misappropriated a huge sum of the government and took shelter with the English. It was one of the cause of the attack of Sirrajudullah on Calcutta. Maharaja Raj Ballabh was finally got killed by Nawab Mir Qasim. He was also known as the founder of Rajnagar.

Omi Chand or Amin Chand was a Sikh who grew rich in Bengal and highly respectable merchant of Calcutta which was then an emerging habitation. He was shown to have participated with Clive and Jagath Seth to cheat Captain Watson. He revealed to Clive that there was no much cash in the account books of the Nawab of Bengal but there was enough gold with the ladies of the families.

Raja Manik Chand was approached by Robert Clive to act mediator between him and Sirajuddullah. Even Jagath Seth was approached for the similar role. Robert Clive had sought their mediation after he had attacked Hugli.


British Residents At The Darbar Of Bengal Nawabs Murshidabad 1857-72
Bengal Nawabs
Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal, 1760-1763
Bengal Nawabs



52) With reference to First Carnatic war, consider the following statements:
1)It began in 1746 and ended in 1748.
2) Anwar –ud-din, the nawab of the Carnatic intervened in the war on behalf of the English.
3) Chanda Saheb was captured and executed.
4) Madras was restored to the English by the French after the war.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
a) 1, 2 and 3
b) 2,3 and 4
c) 1,2 and 4
d) 1,3 and 4
Ans: 1, 2 and 4.
The First Carnatic War began in 1746 and ended in 1748.

Important Note:
A general survey of consecutive four to five years papers of Prelims and Mains can give a discerning observor a fair idea that Karnatic wars have remained an important topic. It was a fight between trading companies of Great Britain and France. The causes invariably originated in Europe and the war was fought in India over Indian soil. Therefore, this topic, along with Anglo-Mysore War and Anglo Maratha War, which have been underrated by some of the coaching centres, should always be made an important topics for study. A good note from an above average Text Book of Graduation level should be prepared. It gives you question.

A brief summary of the three Carnatic Wars are as follows:
First Carnatic War was fought between 1746 and 1748. The cause of the war was the fight between France and Britain on the Austrian Succession in Europe. The Trading Companies also indulged in fight between them in India. It ended in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.

The Second Carnatic War was fought between 1749 and 1754. It started when the European companies, French and British, indulged in internal politics of Nizam of Hyderabad and Carnatic. It ended in Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754.

The Third Carnatic War was fought between 1757-1763. It started with Seven Years War in Europe. It ended with Treaty of Paris in 1763. During this war, French governor, Count de Lally was defeated by British Commander Sir Eyre Coote in Battle of Wandiwash (A question which had been asked numerous times in Prelims). It is considered to have ended the French dominance in India and left British company to have a free play in India.

The above topics must be developed in detail along with Anglo Maratha War and Anglo Mysore War as they are again asked short questions in Main papers. (Check last years Main papers to verify the credibility of the claim.).


War, Wine, and Taxes: The Political Economy of Anglo-French Trade, 1689-1900 (Princeton Economic History of the Western World)England in the Seven Years' War, 1759-63Battle for Empire: The Very First World War 1756-63


53) Which one of the following was the primary cause of the Fourth Anglo Mysore War?
a) Tipu’s attack on the English territory in Madras
b) The attack of the English on Mysore to finally destroy Tipu’s power
c) Tipu’s attack on Hyderabad, an ally of the British
d) The alliance between the Nizam and the English against Tipu
Ans: The attack of the English on Mysore to finally destroy Tipu's power. : b
As suggested above, Three topics namely Anglo-French War(1746-1763), Anglo-Mysore Wars(1766-99) and Anglo-Maratha Wars (1775-1818) must prepared both for prelims and Mains short answer. Now a brief summary of Anglo-Mysore War.

First Anglo-Mysore War (1766-69): Haider Ali inflicted crushing defeat on the combination of Marathas, Nizam of Hyderabad and British Company.

Second Anglo-Mysore War(1780-84): Tipu obtained territories in the south under the command of Haider Ali.During this war, Tipu emerged as the next power in teh region. However, the war ended in the Treaty of Mangalore 1784. The important thing during the war was that the army of Mysore was able to defeat the army of British Trading Company.
The Third Anglo-Mysore War started with the invasion of Travancore, an ally of British Trading Company by the forces of Tipu Sultan. The forces of Tipu Sultan was defeated. The British Trading Compnay forces laid a seige on Seringapatam. The war ended in the Treaty of Seringapatam in 1792. By the treaty, Tipu lost nearly half of his territory.

The Fourth Anglo Maratha War: In the battle of Seringapatam 1799, Mysore was defeated and Tipu was killed.


The Sword of Tipu SultanThe History of the Reign of Tipú Sultán, Being a Continuation of the Neshani Hyduri Written by Mir H
Sword of Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan's Palace of Seringapatam, India Collections Giclee Poster Print, 24x32Tipu Sultan ( Amar Chitra Katha Comics )Rulers Of India - Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan And The Struggle With The Musalman Powers Of The South


54) List I                  List –II
(Name of the fort) (Its location )
A. Fort St. David      1. Pondicherry
B. Fort William        2. Cuddalore
C. Fort St. George   3. Bengal
D. Fort Louis          4. Madras
5. Bombay
a) A-5 B-3 C-1 D-4
b) A-5 B-2 C-4 D-1
c) A-2 B-3 C-4 D-1
d) A-2 B-3 C-1 D-4
Ans:
Fort St. David: Cuddalore: A-2
Fort William:Bengal: B-3
Fort St. George: Madras: C-4
Fort Louis:Pondicherry: D-1
Ans: Fort St. David: The forst was built by a Hindu trader on the river Gadilam near Cuddalore. Shivaji occupied it in 1677 when he invested the Fort of Gingee. The English Trading company bought it from the Marathas in 1690. In 1690, Elihu Yale was the Governor of Madras. He was from Wales. St. David was patron saint of Wales. The English Trading company named the fort as Fort St. David as per the desire of Elihu Yale, the then governor of Madras. In 1746, Fort St. David became the headquaters of British factories in South India. The French company had captured in 1758 and then again in 1782. However, in 1785, the British regained it. It is said that Robert Clive married in the church of Fort St. David.

Cuddalore is situated to the south Pondicherry as a coastal town in present district of Cuddalore of Tamil Nadu. It is an ancient town mentioned in Puranas. It has been a sea port having trading contacts with Roman empire which substantiated by archeological evidences. It was occupied by Dutch during modern period. The Dutch were replaced by Portuguese. Portuguese were removed by French people and finally it was taken over by British trading company.

Fort William: Fort William is in Kolkatta. It was named after the King William III of England. It is situated on the river Hooghly. It remained the headquaters British Trading Company and rise of the British Trading company as the political power in India.
Fort St. George: Fort St. George was the first British fort in India. It was founded in 1639 at Madras (Chennai – Channapattam). The land for the area was bought from a nayak of Vijyanagar empire by Francis Day who was deputed by the company to find a settlement on the east coast. It was named after the patron Saint of England, Saint George whose day falls on on April 23. It was constructed mainly to direct trade to Malacca strait. It was decamped by the French forces during the First Anglo-French War but restored to the British Trading company through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. A settlement George Town developed around it. It is considered be the starting of the urbanization of Madras.

Fort Louis: Pondicherry was a gift of Sher Khan Lodhi of Bijapur Kingdom to the French trading company. Francoise Martin had built a fort there in 1701 which was completed in 1706 and named Fort Louis. It was destroyed by the English in 1769 and was not fully rebuilt after that.

The Asiatic journal and monthly register for British India and its depende
A sortie from Fort St. George: Being a narrative of the services of the Madras troops under Major General Whitlock, K.C.B. : during the war in central India in the years 1858-59
Madras in the olden time: Being a history of the presidency from the first foundation of Fort St. George to the occupation of Madras by the French, 1639-1748

55) Which one of the following news papers was launched by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya in 1909?
a) Free India
b) Nav Bharat
c) Independent
d) Leader
Ans: Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya launched the news paper Leader in 1909.
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya (Mahamana) founded 'The Leader”, an English daily at Allahabad. It became quite popular under its editor C. Y. Chintamani. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya himself had edited 'Hindustan' and Indian Opinion. He also published a weekly titled 'Abhudaya'. He also headed 'The Hindustan Times'.

Speeches and Writings of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya: A socio-political study
Pandit M.M. Malaviya's statement on repression in India up to April 20, 1932


56) Who of the following started one of the earliest centres of revolutionary activity outside India In England known as Indian Home Rule Society?
a) Bhikaji Cama
b) Dadabhai Naoroji
c) Rashbihari Bose
d) Shyamji Krishna Varma
Ans: Shyamji Krishna Varma: d.
All the above four, viz. Bhikaji Cama, Dababhai Naoroji, Rashbihari Bose and Shyamji Krishna Varma had worked for India from outside India. Except for Dababhai Naoroji, the rest of the three had participated in the revolutionary activities.
Shyamji Krishna Varma is known for founding Indian Home Rule Society, Indian House and Indian Sociologist. He was a great follower of Swami Dayananda Saraswati.
Indian Home Rule Society (IHRS) was founded on February 18, 1905. It aimed at working for self-rule in British India. He was supported by Bikaji Cama, Dadabhai Naoroji and S. R. Rana.

Bhikaji Rustom Cama was daughter of Sorabji Framji Patel and Jaijibai Sorabji Patel. Bhikaji Cama finally located hereself in Paris where she started Paris Indian Society. She founded two weeklies, namely Vande Mataram and Talwar. She had participated in framing the design of a national flag. The flag was raised by her on August 22, 1907 at International Socialist Conference at Stuttgart. It was named as Flag of Indian Independence. Later, the same flag was adopted by the Berlin Committee.

Rash Bihari Bose had founded Indian Independence League in Japan and finally Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) which was finally headed by Subash Chander Bose. It was his efforts along with General Mohan Singh that the soldiers of Indian National Army were recruited in Japan.

Dadabhai Naoroji had written the most important economic critic of British administration titled “Poverty and UnBritish rule in India”. He was associated with East India Association, Indian Home Rule Movement and Indian National Congress. He was also associated with founding of Indian National Association of Surendranath Banerjee.


India & Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji: An account of the demonstrations held in his honour as M.P. for Central Finsbury, during his visit to India for the purpose ... Congress, Lahore, December 1893-January 1894The First Indian Member of the Imperial Parliament; Being a Collection of the Main Incidents Relating to the Election of Dadabhai Naoroji to
Madam Cama (Bhikaji Rustom K.R.), mother of Indian revolution (International Women's year series)



2 comments:

  1. Sir,
    A commendable writing & important for competition point of view...

    ReplyDelete

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