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  • Sunday, April 03, 2005

    Section III: other Unorthodox Sects


    Continuation of the Section III

    The Ajivikas

    Which were the contemporary religions of Ajivikas?
    What similarity did Ajivika cult has with Buddhism and Jainsim?
    Who was thew founder of the Ajivika cult?
    With whom did the teachings of Goshala Maskariputra resembles?
    What was the relation between Goshala Maskariputra and Mahavira?
    What was the source of the basis of the teachings of Goshala and Mahavira?
    What was the status of the class to which Goshala belonged?
    When did Goshala died?
    What had happened between Goshala and Mahavira in the city of Sharvasti?
    Which were the other teachers who joined with Goshala to make the Ajivika sect?
    When was Ajivikas at their popularity best?
    Who were the royal patrons of Ajivikas?
    How did Ashoka and his grandson Dashratha pay their respect to the Ajivikas?
    When did Ajivikas loose their importance?
    Where did Ajivikas continue to survive even after decline in their importance?
    What is the last known period of existence of the Ajivikas?
    Do we have the literature of the Ajivikas?
    From where do we learn about the teachings of the Ajivikas?
    What is the nature of the references to the Ajivikas in the Buddhist and Jain literature?
    What were the main features of the teachings of the Ajivikas?
    What were the views of the Ajivikas on the question of karma and transmigration?
    What is the most important feature of the theory of the Karma of the Ajivikas?
    How many Mahakalpa are there as per the Ajivikas?
    What was the version of the Ajivikas on the question of hard ascetic practices?
    What was the accusation of Buddhism and Jainism against the Ajivikas?
    With which other religion did the Dravidian Ajivikas have similarity?
    Among which section of the Ajivikas Goshala acquired the status of the divinity?
    What changes took place in the doctrine of the Ajivikas in the Dravidian Ajivikas?


    Skepticism and Materialism:
    What was the nature of the spiritual beliefs of Buddha Mahavira and Goshala along with other small teacher of the sixth century BC religious reform movement?
    How far were Buddha, Mahavira, and Goshala atheist?
    In which Upanishadic literature do we find the earliest sign of skepticism, on the question of existence of the immaterial categories, in which most of the occult sciences were explained and thereby, the theory of transmigration, gods, soul had been explained?
    Who was the main exponent of the complete materialism who was also a contemporary of Buddha?
    How did Ajit Keshakambalin explain the materialistic nature of the universe and what was the popular name of the sect, which he propagated?
    What was the view of Buddha on the sect started by Ajit Keshakambalin?
    With philosophical of western group is the Ajit's sect identified?
    What is the importance of the sect of Ajit in the philosophical development of Indian thought through ages?
    What was the approach of Jain, Buddhism, and Hinduism towards the Charvahaks or Lokaayatas?
    What was fear of the effect of the Lokaayatas views on the social fiber?
    In which other old literature do we find the reference to materialistic and irreligious methods?
    What was the main stress on the way a life should be lived as per the Charvahaks?
    What virtue do we find in the doctrines of the Charvahaks?
    Who was Jayashri of the eighth century?
    Which book did Jayashri write in eighth century?
    What was the main restrain of the Tattvopaplavasinhas?



    Remember:
    Bindusara was a follower of Ajivikas.

    In the Pillar inscription, Asoka has mentioned four religions in his regions.
    Which were they?
    Answer: They were Sanghika, Nirgranthis, Brahmans and Ajivikas.
    It is important to note that during the rise of Bindusara and even later the Ajivikas had played the major political role in the politics of Mauryan dynasty.
    They were fatalist. It is believed that the fatalism in Hinduism has been borrowed from the Ajivikas which had ceased to exit. It has probably merged with the Vaishnavism of the second century of second B.C.. A general survey of last year papers would easily reveal that there had been many two to three questions Goshala and his relations with other leading religious movements of India before the Christian period.


    A Question:
    Differentiate between Vedic, Brahman, Vaishnav, Shaiv and Hindusim.

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