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  • Sunday, April 03, 2005

    HINDUISM

    Ancient History: Question Bank Four


    Chapter VII
    Religion in Ancient India
    Reference: Continued from the previous Post:


    Section IV HINDUISM


    Development and Literature:

    Which are the popular cults mentioned in the Buddhist, Jain, and Brahmanical literature?
    What is the Yaksha?
    What is Nagas?
    Which of the popular cult god had become famous by the end of the second century BC?
    Which god was widely worshipped in the Western India in pre-Christian period?
    In which inscription was Vasudeva mentioned?
    The royalty of which region had patronized the cult of Vasudeva?
    Which foreign invaders had patronized the Vasudeva cult?
    With which Rigvedic god was Vasudeva identified?
    With which other deity was Vasudeva identified apart from the identification with God Vishnu?
    Which hero of the Indian martial tradition was identified with Vasudeva, God Vishnu, and Narayana?
    Which hero of the Mahabharata epic had been identified with God Vishnu?
    What transformation did take place with change in time about the divinity of God Vishnu?
    By what time the cult of divine boar, which was popular in the Malwa region, was identified with God Vishnu?
    Which other deity of local origin, probably to southern side of Malwa, was identified with God Vishnu in the Guptan period?
    Which of the two major deities, one a Brahmanical hero and other a hero another great Indian epic, was identified with God Vishnu?
    Which various Gods were included in the pantheon of Vaishnavism?
    Which fertility deity had risen in importance by the Guptan period?
    To which religious tradition could Shaiv cult have belonged?
    With which was Rigvedic deity was God Shiva identified?
    In which form was God Shiva usually worshipped?
    Which two other deities were identified with God Shiva?
    Which peculiarly important changes had taken place in the Hinduism by the end of the Guptan period?
    List the five major changes, which took place in the Hindu religion in the end of the Guptan period, which became the major feature of the Hindu religion in the Middle Ages?
    What was the final impact on the Hinduism, which gave it its present shape?
    What changes had taken place concerning the practices related with Vedas, Brahmans and Upanishads?
    What were the practitioners of the Vedas doing in light of the new doctrines?
    What form of religion had risen in South India under the influence of the Aryan culture on the regional cult?
    Which type of the religious preachers emerged from the South India under a new form in Hindu religion, which became the distinctive feature of Hinduism in Medieval India?


    Special Note: The devotional religion, for which the Hindu religion has become famous, had emerged under the influence of the local cults of South India.The important one is the devotion to the Lord Krishna. Lord Krishna as a child, then as a Sakha or a friend and a shephard, and finally as a supreme deity are the features which were prevalent among the sects to the south of the river of Ganga. Krishna and Balram and Parudamana of Vrishni Tribe, which was the feature of the hero worship of the Gangetic plan (some time also called as the Gangetic Valley Civilization).


    What was the nature of the literature in the medieval ages?
    What was possibility of the reading the religious Hindu literature by the low caste Hindus?
    What was the variety of the Hindu literature, which could available to the low caste people?
    Was there any specialized literature in Hinduism, which was meant for the learned people?
    What was the actual nature of the two main Hindu epics in their earlier form?
    When was Mahabharta being treated as the religious text?
    What changes were taking place about the actual structure of the Mahabharta when it was taken as the sacred literature before the Christian era?
    What is the major and spectacular interpolation in the Mahabharta?
    What are the other major interpolations in the Mahabharta?
    What is Harivansha in Mahabharta?
    What is the importance of Harivansha?
    When was the epic Ramayana did acquire the status of the sacred literature of the Hindus?
    What changes were made to the text of the Ramayana when it was adopted as the sacred literature of the Hindus?
    What is the etymological meaning of the word Purana?
    What is the content structure of the Purana?
    How many Purana are there?
    Which are the most important Puranas?
    When would have been the present form of the Puranas compiled?
    What is oldest extant form of the Puranas are available since the Guptan times?
    What is literary value of the religious poetry written after the Guptan period?
    Which is the most remarkable religious poetry after the Guptan period?
    Who was the author of the Geeta Govinda?
    When was the Geeta Govinda authored?
    To which region did Jayadeva belong?
    What other form of the religious literature was popular?
    Who had started writing the Stotras?
    What is the other contribution of the South India to the religious poetry and literature?
    What is the nature of the literary contents of Tirukkural?
    Who was the author of Tirukkural?
    When did Tiruvalluvar write Tirukkural?
    What is the name of the religious literature of the Tamil Shavites?
    How many Tirumurai were there?
    When were Tirumurai compiled?
    Who wrote Tirumurai?
    How many Nayanars were there?
    Which is the chief work among Tirumurai?
    How many poets had written Tevaaram, the chief among the eleven Tirumurai?
    Name the poets who had written Tevaaram.
    Which is the another important Tirumurai apart from Tevaaram?
    Who was the writer of Tiruvaashangam, which is next in importance to Tevaaram among the eleven Tirumurai?
    Which was the major Tamil Vaishnav religious poetry of the fifth and sixth century?
    Which is the contemporary of Nalayiram, the Tamil Vaishnav poetry?
    What is the meaning of Nalayiram?
    How many Aalvaara had written Nalayiram?
    Who were the Aalvaara?
    In which local regions, highly valued local religious poetry was written in South India during the ancient period of the Indian history?
    When was the religious poetry in Aryan vernaculars was written in South India?
    Whose poetry and of which period, written in Aryan vernacular had survived?
    Name two main Marathi Vaishnavite poets?




    GOD VISHNU:

    Who was the god of Vaishnavites?
    What is God Vishnu to his followers?
    Where does God Vishnu sleep?
    What is the bed of God Vishnu in his primeval ocean bedroom?
    What does grow out of the sleeping God Vishnu of the bed of Shesha?
    What was the demi-urge of God Vishnu?
    Who had born in the lotus, which had grown out of the navel of the sleeping God Vishnu?
    What does Brahma do while sitting in the lotus that have grown out of the navel of the sleeping God Vishnu?
    When did God Vishnu awake?
    From where does God Vishnu rule the world created by Brahma while he was sleeping?
    Why does God Vishnu awake?
    How was God Vishnu shown?
    How many arms does God Vishnu have?
    What is the colour of the God Vishnu?
    What are the emblems of God Vishnu?
    What is the name of the holy jewel worn by God Vishnu?
    What the curly tuff of hairs on the chest of God Vishnu is called?
    What is the vehicle of God Vishnu?
    With which earlier god was Garuda associated?
    Who had raised the column of Besnagar in commemoration of the cult of Vasudeva?
    Who is the spouse of the God Vishnu?
    What is the overall status of God Vishnu among the gods of Hindu pantheon?
    Who were the other gods associated with God Vishnu?
    Where is the universal status of God Vishnu recorded?
    What is the general nature of the character of the God Vishnu?
    Who is the counterpart of God Vishnu?
    What is the nature of the character of God Shiva?
    What does the god do all the time?
    Why does the god go incarnation?
    From where do we learn that god go for incarnation for the welfare of the humanity?
    How many Avatars of God Vishnu are there?
    By what time the list of ten Avatars was completed?
    Under what influence was the concept of Avatars taken by the Vaishnavites?
    Can there be partial incarnation of the god as per the Vaishnavites?
    Can there be more then ten incarnation of God Vishnu and how and why?
    List the ten Avatars of God Vishnu.
    When did God Vishnu take the incarnation of Matsya the fish?
    Whom did the Matsya incarnation warn of the impending flood?
    How many rishies had accompanied Manu when Manu was saved by the Matsya incarnation?
    What other thing was saved by Matsya incarnation?
    In which Vedic literature is the Matsya incarnation mentioned for the first time?
    Was Matsya ever became highly worshiped deity?
    What is the meaning of Kurma?
    Why did god take the incarnation of a tortoise?
    What was lost in the great flood which required retrieving?
    Which mount was used to churn the cosmic ocean?
    What was used as a rope to churn cosmic ocean with mount Mandara?
    What was recovered by churning the cosmic ocean?
    Which goddess emerged on churning of the cosmic ocean?
    What is the meaning of Varaaha?
    What did Hiranyaksha do the earth?
    Why did God Vishnu take the incarnation of Boar Varaaha?
    In which Vedic literature is the story of Hiranyaksha mentioned?
    What does the incarnation of a god as boar suggests?
    When was the worship of the God Vishnu as Boar popular in India?
    What is the meaning of Narasinha?
    From whom did Hiranyakashipu obtain the boon of impossible death?
    What did Hiranyakashipu do to the pious people after attaining the boon?
    What was the attitude of Hiranyakashipu towards his son?
    What was the name of the son of Hiranyakashipu?
    Who had prayed to God Vishnu to get the incarnation of Narsinha?
    Was Narasinha worshipped as a deity?
    What is the meaning of Vaamana?
    What was the demon Bali able to achieve?
    What was Bali doing to the pious people after achieving the power through asceticism?
    What did God Vishnu, in incarnation of Vaamana ask from Bali?
    What did Vaamana do after taking the permission from Bali?
    Why did Vaamana not take the third step?
    How old is the story of the three steps of the God?
    What is the meaning of Parashurama?
    To whom God Vishnu was born as Parashurama?
    Who robbed by the King Kaartavirya?
    What did Parashurama do to Kaartavirya?
    What was done to Jamadagni by the sons of Kaartavirya?
    How did Parashurama avenge the murder of his father Jamadagni?
    How many times did Parashurama destroy the Kshatriya class?
    Who was Rama?
    Why did God Vishnu take the incarnation of Rama?
    What is the probable period when the King Rama could have lived on the earth?
    When did the cult of Rama become popular?
    Who were the attendants of the King Rama?
    What was the character of Rama?
    When did Rama get the incarnation of God Vishnu?
    Who is the most important incarnation of God Vishnu?
    Where was Krishna born?
    What was the tribe of Krishna?
    What was the name of the father of Krishna?
    What was the name of the mother of Krishna?
    How was Devaki, the mother of Krishna, related to Kansa?
    What was prophesied about the death of Kansa?
    Who was saved from the wrath of Kansa along with Krishna?
    Where were Krishna and his elder brother Balrama, brought up?
    What were the name of the foster father and mother of Krishna?
    What is the number of child of Krishna as the child of Devaki and Vasudeva?
    What was the profession of Nanda and Yashoda?
    What did Kansa do we he learn that Krishna and Balrama had escaped his city?
    What did Nanda do when he learned that Kansa had ordered the killing of the entire male child?
    To which two places were Krishna and Balrama were taken to hide them from the ire of Kansa?
    Where did Krishna and Balrama ultimately end?
    What were the major activities of the child Krishna?
    Which mount was used by Krishna to save the herdsmen from the rain?
    What was the naughtiest activity of the child Krishna?
    What were the activities of the Adolescent Krishna?
    Who was Krishna's favourite amour?
    What musical instrument did adolescent Krishna plays?
    Why did the youthful activities of Krishna soon ended?
    How did Krishna seize the rule over Mathura?
    Who were the two adversaries of Krishna when he took over Mathura?
    Who was the father I law of Kansa?
    Why was Krishna made to move to Dawarka in Saurashtra?
    Who did Krishna marries?
    To which kingdom, did Rukmani, the wife of Krishna belong?
    How many children and wives did Krishna have?
    With whom did Krishna make alliance in the Mahabharta?
    Who had spoken Gita in the battlegrounds of Kurukshetra?
    Where did Krishna help Pandya to establish their rule?
    What changes had taken place in Dawarka when Krishna returned from Mahabharta?
    What measures did Krishna take to curb the rising conflict within his reign at Dawarka?
    What havoc had taken place when he relaxes the ban on intoxication on one of the festival?
    Whom did he lose in the brawl, which started in the festival where he had relaxed the ban on the intoxication?
    How many Yadav chiefs had died in the brawl of Dawarka?
    How did Krishna dies?
    What did happen to Dawarka after the death of Krishna?
    Which story had been given the respect of the divine hero in the Hinduism?
    Where do we find the earliest mention to the story of Krishna as a son of Devaki performing the fabulous deeds?
    In what context the deeds of Krishna are mentioned in the earliest Upanishad?
    What part of the present story of Krishna could have definitely been incorporated afterwards?
    What tragedy of the Krishna story does not fit in the general Hinduism?
    What was the colour of Krishna and what is the etymological meaning of the word Krishna?
    In what aspect of his life had Krishna been shown in black?
    In the anthologies of which region is Krishna shown as black?
    When Krishna was shown black, what activities was he performing?
    What is the Tamil word for Krishna and what does it mean?
    What does the Tamil connection of Krishna suggest?
    From which tribes had the concept of Krishna Govinda developed into overall Krishna mythology?
    What aspect of Krishna life had influenced the literature the most?
    What aspect of Krishna had influenced the Devotional poetry of India and fin similar experiences in other religion?
    What is third element of Krishna, which had been shown as divine activity of the god what are the other two aspects of the Krishna divine activities?
    Which is the latest aspect of the divine aspect of the Krishna life?
    What is the origin of the aspect of Krishna as a child god?
    Discuss the various aspects of Krishna as a god and their significance?
    Where was the cult of Vasudeva popular?
    What is the two another names of Balrama the brother of Krishna?
    What is the meaning of Halaayudha?
    Was Balrama some local deity?
    What are the other characteristics of Balrama as deity?
    When had the importance of Balrama decreased and that of Krishna increased?
    Which are the other three figures related to Krishna were also worshipped as the independent deity?
    Who was the son of Krishna who was also worshipped?
    Who was the son of Pradyumna?
    When was Pradyumna killed?
    When was Radha also worshipped along with Krishna?
    Was the wife of Krishna, Rukmani also worshipped with Krishna?
    Who was the last historic incarnation of God Vishnu?
    Why did God take the incarnation of Buddha?
    What is the view of Jaydeva in Geeta Govinda about the cause of the god taking the birth as Buddha?
    Where do we find the earliest lit of the incarnation of God Vishnu?
    Which is the future incarnation of god?
    Which the future incarnation of Buddha?
    What will Kalkin riding when he will come?
    What will be the weapon of Kalkin?
    What will Kalkin restore and what else he will do?
    Which influence does the concept of Kalkin suggest?



    God Shiva:

    What is the Vedic source of God Shiva cult?
    What other aspect would have helped God Shiva as an equally important cult?
    Where does God Shiva generally delve?
    What is his general appearance?
    What is his role as a Mahakala?
    What is the important feature of God Shiva's divinity?
    Who consider God Shiva as their deity?
    Where does God Shiva live?
    Where does God Shiva sit?
    In what state of mind does God Shiva sit?
    What does he do in his meditation?
    How does Shiva maintain his hairs?
    What adores the topknot of God Shiva?
    What does flows out of the topknot of God Shiva?
    What is there in the middle of the forehead of God Shiva?
    What does the third eye of God Shiva suggest?
    What is the color of the neck of God Shiva?
    Why was the neck of God Shiva black?
    What is rapping around the neck of God Shiva?
    Where else are the snakes covering the body of God Shiva?
    With what is his body smeared?
    What is the weapon of God Shiva?
    Who is regular companion of God Shiva?
    What is the mount of God Shiva?
    What is the name of God Shiva as the Lords of Dances?
    Where is God Shiva popular as a Natraja?
    What is peculiar about the Tamil religious rites, which associate God Shiva with them?
    What is the abode of God Shiva in South, which is compared to Kailasha?
    What is the importance of the mountain Chidambaramn or Tillai?
    What does God Shiva do on the mountain of Tillai or Chidambaramn?
    How many dances God Shiva as Natraja had invented?
    Which is the most famous dance of God Shiva?
    Who are the people who participate with God Shiva in his dance Tandava?
    What is the result of the dance Tandava?
    What is the name of God Shiva as a universal teacher?
    What is the posture of God Shiva as Dakshinamurti?
    Under which influence does the Dakshinamurti of God Shiva emerged?
    In what form is God Shiva usually worshipped?
    What does the worship of God Shiva in form of Linga suggest?
    What other influence could have been the cause of the worship of God Shiva in form of Phallus symbol?
    When would have the Tamil phallus cult been accepted in Hinduism?
    What was the field of sway of Rudra as Vedic god?
    How is Pashupati in Tamil region shown?
    In which of the earlier civilization, there was clear cut cult of Pashupati?
    How is Pashupati shown?
    Had God Shiva also taken the incarnation?
    What is the famous incarnation of God Shiva in the Hindu cult?
    What is the most famous incarnation of God Shiva for his personal life?
    What was prophesied about Taaraka, the demon?
    When was the god of love Kama was destroyed by Shiva?
    What does the word Parvati otherwise suggest?
    Whom did Skand, the son of God Shiva and Parvati, destroy?
    The Relations of God Vishnu and God Shiva:
    How was a Hindu identifies in the earlier part of Christian era? What was the position of other cult for the Hindu who had adopted either Vaishnavism or Shaivism?
    What is the overall approach of both the Vaishnavite and Shaivite for each other?
    What is the mutual acceptance of both the cult of Shaivism and Vaishnavism suggest about the overall character of Hinduism?
    In spite of the duality of the gods in Hinduism, what is the actual approach of a Hindu?
    What does the emergence of the concept of Trimurti suggest?
    Which famous poet of the Guptan period had written poem on the Trimurti god?
    How is the Hindu trinity concept is different from the Christian trinity concept?
    What is the concept of the god Harihar?
    When did the concept of Harihar emerge where did the god Harihar become more popular?
    Which royal house had given the patronage to the god Harihar?




    The Mother Goddess:

    What was the position of the worship of the Goddesses overall in the whole of the Indian history?
    During which period did the worship of the goddess, remain out of favour or less vigorous?
    When did the worshiped of goddesses regain their place of high importance in India?
    What was the position of the Goddesses when they again came into importance after their rise in the Middle Ages?
    What was the importance of the goddess when she is referred to as Shakti?
    Why was the goddess given the status of the Shakti?
    Was the worshiped of the goddess the creation of Gupta period or it was immanent before that period also? Which is the first possible temple in the 5th century dedicated to a goddess?
    How long did the rise of the cult of Mother Goddess continue and what stopped its march?
    Where is the worship of the Mother goddess still the major cult in the present India?
    What was the chief form of the mother Goddess?
    List the various names of the Parvati?
    What is the personality aspect of the goddess Parvati?
    List the benevolent aspects of Goddess Parvati?
    List the grim aspect of the Goddess Parvati?
    With whom the Tamil War-Goddess Korravai identifies?
    In what form the Mother goddess is depicted in her fierce aspects?
    What is the usual mount of the Mother Goddess?
    What is Ardhanaarishvara?
    Where is the symbol of the Mother Goddess in Lings worship?
    Which is the calmest form of the representation of mother Goddess?
    In what life Mother Parvati take birth earlier?
    Who was the father of Mother Sati?
    What are the bases of the rise of Pithas?




    Lesser Gods:

    What is the difference between the Vedic Gods and Hindu Gods?
    Trace the decline of Brahma as a god.
    What was the second name of Brahma in Vedic period?
    Who were the leading gods as per the earlier Buddhist scriptures?
    What was the position of the Brahma in Mahabharta?
    How was Brahma depicted?
    When did the status of Brahma decline?
    Where is the only shrine of Brahma?
    What was the position of the various solar deities in Hinduism?
    Where was the Surya cult more popular?
    When was the solar cult during the Hindu period popular?
    Why did the moon rise in the esteem? What was the gender of the moon?
    How was the moon worshipped?
    What cause the rise of the importance of the moon in Guptan period?
    What was the position of Indra in the Guptan period?
    What does Indra ride?
    What was the name of the elephant of Indra?
    Where did Indra rule?
    Indra guarded which direction?
    What was the another name of Indra?
    In which other religion was Indra propitiated along with Brahma under the name of Shakra?
    What was the position of the worship of Indra in the Middle Ages?
    What was the position of the god Varun in Hinduism? Where did Varun rule in Hinduism?
    Varun guarded which direction of the universe?
    When did the cult of Varun totally phase out?
    Which Tamil god is called Varunan?
    What could be the actual position of Varunan of Tamil fishermen?
    What was the position of Yama worship in Hindusim?
    Yama guarded which direction of the universe?
    What aspect of divinity was present in Yama?
    What was the difference between the Yama of Veda and Yama of Hinduism?
    Who was the assistant of Yama?
    What was the job of Chitragupta as an assistant of Yama?
    Who was the ruler of the north quarter of the universe?
    What was the realm of the divinity of Kuber?
    What is the another name of Kuber?
    When did the name of Kuber appear in the Vedic literature?
    In which other religious scripture do we find the name of Kuber?
    What is the name of the city of Kuber?
    What is the cause of the beauty of the Kuber's city Alakaa?
    Where is the city of Kuber Alakaa situated?
    Who are the citizens of the city Alakaa?
    In what form is physique of Kuber shown?
    Was there any Kuber cult?
    Who were the Lokpalas?
    Name the other four guardians of the intermediary direction of the universe?
    Soma is the guardian of which direction of the universe?
    Vayu is the guardian of which direction?
    Agni is the guardian of which direction?
    Surya is the guardian of which direction?
    In which school of devotional school was Vayu was prayed?
    What was the position of Agni in the later period of Guptas?
    Who was the war god?
    What is the other name of Skanda?
    What is the name of Skand in south?
    What is the other name of Skand apart from being Kumara?
    Was Skand an Aryan god in his earlier stage?
    Who were the parents of Skand?
    What was the sole purpose of Skanda?
    When was the cult of Skand popular in North India?
    When did the popularity of the Skand cult decline?
    What is the name of Skand in Tamil lands?
    What was the actual position of Murugan, the Tamil name of Skand?
    How was Murugan shown and worshipped in Tamil region?
    What did Murugan hold in his hand?
    Who plays the role of Murugan in Tamil land when Murugan is propitiated?
    Who was the mother of Murugan?
    What did Murugan and Korravai did together in the battlegrounds?
    How is Skand shown in the icons and the pictures?
    What is the mount of Skand?
    What is the status of God Ganesha?
    What is the other name of God Ganesha?
    Who were ganas?
    Who were the parents of God Ganesha?
    Where is God Ganesha more popular?
    What is mount of God Ganesha?
    How is God Ganesha depicted in icons and pictures?
    What is the shape of the stomach of God Ganesha?
    What is the position of the teeth of God Ganesha?
    What type of head does God Ganesha has?
    When do find the first reference to God Ganesha?
    When did God Ganesha become popular?
    Was he a non-Aryan god?
    What is the behavior of God Ganesha as a Hindu god?
    What is special about his divinity?
    What name is given to him for his divinity?
    What is the importance of God Ganesha in Hindu rites in present times?
    What are the special interests of God Ganesha?
    Who was the patron god of the grammarians?
    What is the importance of the God Ganesha while writing the new Books and manuscripts?
    What is written when new book is published or a manuscript is begun?
    Which sect reveres the god Ganesha?
    What is the nature of the personality of the gods Ganesha?
    Who was the father of Hanuman?
    With whom was Hanuman related?
    When did Hanuman become the popular deity?
    Which animal is identified with God Hanuman?
    What is the level of the popularity of Hanuman?
    Who was the Indian love God?
    Of what are the arrows of Kama made?
    What is the material of the bow of the god Kama?
    What is the emblem of Kama?
    Who are the attendants of Kama?
    Where do we find the first reference to Kama?
    How was Kama born?
    What is the actual significance of the Kama of the Vedic creation?
    What is the significance of the Kama in the creation of the universe?
    Who are the parents of Kama?
    How far are the arrows of Kama effective?
    When did Kama fail to exercise the powers of his arrows?
    What had happened to Kama when his arrows failed to influence the god Shiva?
    Who was the wife of Kama? How was Rati instrumental in resurrecting Kama back to life?
    Who is the Buddhist parallel to Kama?
    Do all the Hindu Gods have their wives?
    Name some of the less known wives of Gods?
    How was the lesser divine wives worshipped?
    How many of the divine wives are worshipped?
    Which of the two male gods are also worshipped along with seven mothers Goddesses?
    Which are the three major goddesses along with Durga?
    On what aspect of the human life does the Goddess Lakshmi rule?
    Who was the husband of Goddesses Lakshmi?
    What is the another name of Goddesses Lakshmi?
    How far is Goddess Lakshmi shown with her husband Vishnu?
    How is mother Lakshmi depicted in portraits?
    Where does Lakshmi sit?
    Who are attending to mother Lakshmi?
    Which are the various incarnations of mother Lakshmi?
    Who was Saraswati?
    What was the field of the divinity of Mother Saraswati?
    How is Goddess Saraswati mentioned in Rig-Veda?
    How is mother Saraswati mentioned in the later Vedic literature?
    Who is Goddess Saraswati depicted in portraits and icons?
    What is the mount of mother Saraswati?
    What two things do Goddess Saraswati invented?
    Who are the usual worshippers of mother Saraswati?

    Remeber: The worship of Ganesha, Hanuman and Lakshami became popular only after the Bhakti movement had run its major course.




    Demigods and Spirits:

    What were the local god or goddess called?
    With which established image of the Hindu goddess, are the local goddesses identified?
    Which the most famous local goddess?
    What is the field of divinity of Sitalaa?
    What is the Tamil parallel of Sitalaa?
    What is the field of divinity of Manasa?
    Where and when did the Manasa become highly popular?
    Where was Aiyanar popular?
    What is the field of the divinity of Aiyanar?
    What is the relation of Aiyanar with Shiva?
    For how long the Naga are being worshipped?
    How are Nagas shown?
    What is the city of dwelling of Nagas?
    What is stored in the Bhogavati the city of Nagas?
    What metamorphosis could the Naga undergo?
    What are their relations with some of Indian ruling families of ancient times?
    Where does the primitive tribe called Naga exist today in India?
    With whom were the Yaksha related?
    When was the cult of Yaksha popular in India?
    When did the worship of Yaksha decline?
    What was the attitude of Yaksha towards the man?
    Who were the Gandharvas?
    For what are the Gandharvas mostly famous for?
    What was the divine act for which they were popular during the times of Buddha?
    Who were kinnars?
    How were Kinnars shown?
    Who were Vidyadharas?
    Where did Vidyadharas live?
    What were the supernatural powers of the Vidyadharas?
    What was the attitude of the Vidyadharas towards the human beings?
    What was the importance of Rishies?
    What was the status of Rishies?
    Which are the seven chief Rishies?
    Name two important Rishies apart from the seven Rishies?
    What is the importance of Rishi Kashyapa and Daksha?
    Which Rishi had invented Vina?
    Who was the patron Rishi of music?
    Which Kshtriya had risen to the status of Brahman and the to Rishi?
    Who was the main consultant of the Gods?
    What was the earlier status of Rishi Brihaspati?
    With which planet is Brihaspati identified?
    Which Rishi is identified with Jupiter?
    Which planet is also a Rishi?
    Which major philosophical thought of Hinduism is creation of Rishi Brihaspati?
    What is the historic importance of Agastya?
    Which Rishi had taught the religion and culture to the South Indians?
    What is the importance of Siddhas?
    Which is the chief evil spirit?
    What was the status of Asura in Vedas?
    What is the position of Asura in Hinduism?
    Which is the evil spirit could easily effect the Human beings?
    Name the most famous Rakshasa?
    What do most of the Rakshasa do?
    Who are less terrible than Rakshasa?
    Who was the inventor of the Prakrit language?
    What were the usual place of residence of Rakshasa and pichasas?
    Which evil spirits live in the human corps?
    By whom was the night generally haunted?
    What is the cause of the birth of a preta or bhuta?
    Against whom were the preta and bhuta?
    What is the overall nature of the universe in Hinduism?
    Why are the Nayanars and Alvaras worshipped?
    How many Alvaras are there?
    How many Nayanars are there?
    Which is the most worshipped animal in Hinduism?
    Who is the legendary cow?
    From where was the legendary cow Surabhi obtained?
    What are panchagavya?
    What is the importance of panchagavya?
    What are the supernatural powers of the divine cows?
    Which another animal is worshipped apart cow but do not have temple separate for them?
    Do the legendary cows have any temples to them?
    Which is the only animal deity who had temple for him?
    Which is the most revered animal, which is worshipped after the cow?
    Name the two legendary snakes of Hindu mythology?
    What do the snake generally signify?
    What was the general rite associated with the snake in domestic life of a Hindu?
    Which of the dwelling of the snakes were revered in India?
    What is the overall situation of the respect of the Monkey God?
    What was the situation of the tree cult in India?
    What similarity does the Tree cult in India have with the Tree cult of other civilization?
    Which was the most important tree for worship?
    What is the another name of the Pippal tree?
    What is the biological name of the Pippal?
    What does the Pippal tree share in two of the major religion of India?
    Which the another tree famous for the religious purpose in India apart from Pippal?
    What is the another name of the tree Vatta?
    What is the biological name of the tree Vatta?
    Which tree did the women for the bearing child pray?
    Which was the most sacred plant in Hinduism?
    With which God was Tulsi related?
    What is the biological name of Tulsi?
    Which of the grasses prayed in Hindusim?
    Which mountain was considered to be the center of the earth in Hindusim?
    Which the sacred mountain ranges?
    Which city is the living place of God Vishnu?
    Where the abode of God Shiva located?
    What is the abode of God Shiva?
    Which of the rock based symbol is associated with God Vishnu?
    From where does the mythical Ganga originate?
    From where does the mythical Ganga travel before reaching the Earth?
    What is the path of Ganga in the space called?
    Where does Ganga first reach on the Earth?
    How do the Hindus worship the Ganga?
    Which is the other river considered sacred along with Ganga and Yammuna?
    Where doe the river Saraswati joins with Ganga and Yammuna?
    Name the sacred rivers of South?
    Which two lakes do the Hindus consider divine?

    Note: These gods were prevalent among local communities. They are also identified with heritage from Indus Valley period. They were local deities. They have great significance for the independence movement also. The protest against the forest laws always found milenium and divine connotation only because to the worship of these local deities. In my recent research, on Black Hole in Calcutta, I found that the Dr. Holwell was quite aware of such activities of such local people and learnt many aspects of medicine from them. All such knowledge was identified with some local diety. He presented papers on inoculation, he mentioned some local dieities which was considered to have presided over the surgical methods adopted by the locals. However, he had mentioned the knoweldge of Vaidiyas on such surgical matters. Holwell is much popular for his report on Black Hole. He is rather more famous for introducing surgical methods to the whole world in the field of medicine. If candidates from medicine background are reading my question bank, I hope they may counter check it and will find it true.

    Cosmogony:

    When was the Hindu cosmology developed?
    What is the basic theory of universe in Hinduism?
    How long is the basic Kalpa in Hinduism? What is average duration of one Kalpa as per the Hindusim?
    What is the mechanism of the creation and decline of universe as per Hindusim?
    What is Manvantras?
    In which Manvantra is our universe passing through as per the Hinduism/
    Who is the first man of this Manvantra?
    In how many mahayuga is one Manvantra divided.
    In how many Yuga is one mahayuga divided?
    In which Yuga does our present life falls as per the Hindu cosmology?
    What will be the condition in the society according to various passages in epics?
    What will be the main features of the social relations in the kali Yuga/
    What will ultimately happen to the universe at the end of the kali Yuga?
    When was the idea of dome incorporated in the epic literature?
    What could have been the basis of incorporating the idea of dome of the universe in the epic literature?
    What could be the cause of fabricating the astronomical measures for the universe?
    By what time after the Mahabharta would the Kali Yuga end?
    Who would regenerate the universe at the end of the present Kalpa?
    What is the corresponding metals for the each mahayuga?
    What are the two main theories of the creation of the world in Hindu philosophy?
    What is the basic matter used by the creator to produce the world as per the Sankhya philosophy?
    What was the motive of the creation of the universe?



    The Soul, Karma and Sansara

    Where was the theory of karma enunciated for the first time? Which other two religions had borrowed the theory of the Karma from the Upanishad?
    From where did the Hindusim borrow the theory of Karma?
    What are the versions of Hindusim and Jainism on the nature of Karma?
    What is the importance of Karma in the life of a soul through various lives as per the Hindu philosophy of karma?
    What is the most dominating idea about the fructification of Karma?
    What is the relation between the karma and fatalism?
    Is there possibility to change our destiny as per the karma theory of Hindusim in spite of the inevitability of the karma?
    In what form does the soul transmigrate to the next birth?
    What is the deciding factor in the birth of the next stage for the soul as per the karma theory of the Hindus?
    What does soul loose when it is transmigrating to the next stage in the life as per the transmigration as per the Karma theory of Hindusim?
    What happens to the state of the existence of the soul at the end of a Kalpa?
    Ultimately when will the karma of a soul annihilating?
    What is the meaning of Sanasara as per the theory of Karma in Hindusim?




    THE SIX SYSTEM OF SALVATION

    A Highly Important section: Every Year, there is two to three questions on this aspect. The questions had appeared in General Studies Prelims from time to time. The Patanjali school, Kanada School and Shankara’s Purva Mimansa had been asked for maximum time. Just make sure that you learn all the six of them. The question is sure to come from here.


    When did the six system of philosophy emerged as concrete schools?
    What is Shaddharma?
    List the three list of the Shaddharma?
    With which will Naya group?
    With which will Vaisheshika group?
    With which will Sankhya group?
    With which will Yoga group?
    With which will Sankhya group?
    With which will Mimansa group?
    With which will Vadnata group?
    What is the meaning of the Naya?
    What is the nature of the Naya Philosophy?
    Who is the propounder the of the Naya school of Philosophy?
    When would Akshapaada Gautama have enunciated the Naya philosophy?
    What is the means of attaining the moksha as per the Naya philosophy?
    How would the logic help in attaining the moksha as per the Naya philosophy?
    What is the meaning of Vaisheshika?
    With which will Vaisheshika group?
    Which is older, Vaisheshika or Naya?
    When did they join to form a single school?
    What is the main interest of Vaisheshika?
    What is the first enunciator of Vaisheshika School of Philosophy?
    When did Prashaspada comment on the work of Uluka Kanaada?
    With which other religious philosophy do Vaisheshika have the similarity?
    What is the basic argument of Vaisheshika on the nature of the universe?
    What is the relation between soul and atom?
    Which are four dravyas as per the Vaisheshika School of philosophy?
    What is Visheshas of an element?
    What is the position of the existence of the atom?
    What happens to the atom at the end of the Kalpa and death of the Brahma?
    What does the new Brahma do which the separated atoms?
    How does Vaisheshika explain the dualism of matter and soul?
    What is the main understanding required to attain the moksha as per the Vaisheshika School of Philosophy?
    Which is the oldest of the Shaddharma?
    Where do we find the first trace of Sankhya school of Philosophy?
    Where is the Sankhya school explained completely?
    Who was the founder of the Sankhya School of Philosophy?
    Which the best and the oldest book available on the Sankhya School of philosophy?
    What is Sankhyakarika?
    Who is the writer of Sankhyakarika and when did he write the book?
    Where does the school of Sankhya resemble Jainism?
    How many tattvas are there as per the Sankhya School of Philosophy?
    What is the first principle of Sankhya School of philosophy?
    List the twenty-five principles of Sankhya school of philosophy?
    Which is the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth principle?
    Which is the sixth sense as per the Sankhya School of Philosophy?
    Describe the relation with Purusha and Prakrit as per the Sankhya School of Philosophy?
    What is the theory of three gunas in Sankhya school of Philosophy?
    Sankhya was mainly atheistic Philosophy. Then how was that, that it adopted theistic feature in the Middle ages?
    What is the meaning of the word Yoga?
    What was the practitioner of Yoga called?
    What is the means of attaining the moksha as per the Yoga?
    Which is the basic text of the Yoga?
    Who was the writer of Yoga Sutra?
    When was Patanjali living?
    How did the principle of Yoga differ from Sankhya with which it has similarity to a large extent?
    What is the definition of Ishvra in Yoga School of Philosophy?
    What similarity does Yoga have with Buddhism and Jainism?
    What symbol is used to represent the Ishvra in Yoga School of Philosophy?
    What is the importance of the symbol OM in the Yoga practices?
    What changes did take place concerning the definition of god in later developments in Yoga School of Philosophy?
    Which are the eight stages in the training of Yoga?
    What is Yama?
    What is niyama?
    What is asana?
    What is pranayama?
    What is pratyahara?
    What is dhyana?
    What is samadhi?
    What are five moral rules under yama?
    What are the five moral rules under niyama?
    Which is best asana?
    What is the importance of pranayama?
    What changes did take place in the middle ages in Yoga School of Philosophy?
    List the major Yoga schools, which developed apart from basic Patanjali yoga?
    Discuss the main esoteric principle of Yoga School of Philosophy?
    Discuss the physiology of the Yoga School of Philosophy?
    What is the actual nature of Mimansa School of Philosophy?
    What was the actual purpose of the Mimansa School of Philosophy?
    What earlier aspect of the philosophy is reflected in Mimansa?
    Who is the main exponent of the Mimansa School of Philosophy?
    What does the sutras of Jaimini suggest about the status of the Vedas?
    What is the period of Jaimini?
    Which aspect of the philosophy emerged with Jaimini?
    Who is the major scholar of Mimansa and which century did he belong?
    Hat was the source of the salvation as per the philosophy of Mimansa.
    What changes had taken place in the eighth century?
    What is the another name of Vedanta?
    What is the status of Vedanta among the six school of philosophy?
    What is the relation of the emergence of the Hinduism with the development of Vedanta?
    Which was the basic literature of Vedanta?
    Who was the writer of Brahma Sutras?
    When were the Brahma Sutras?
    Which are the modern commentators of the Vedanta in India?
    Which was the source of the philosophy of Vedanta?
    What is the status of Shankara concerning the Vedanta?
    To which class does Shankara belong?
    What was the approach of Shankra towards the Vedas?
    What is the basis of the truth as per Shankara?
    With which other philosophy does the logic of the Vedanta resembles?
    Explain the concept of Maya as per the Shankara philosophy.
    Who has created the everyday truth?
    What is the importance of Brahman in Vedanta?
    With whom does the Brahman of Vedanta resembles?
    What was the method of salvation or the real mean of salvation as per the Vedanta philosophy?
    Why did the Philosophy scholars call Shankra crypto-Buddhist?
    What methodology did Shankra adopt to explain the duality of reality?
    What are the two terms in Philosophy for the Shankra School of Vedanta?



    Theism and Devotion in Hinduism:
    (It is better to prepare Sangam literature with this section. However, Basham Book is not a good source for it. The Book by Nilkanta Shastri, History of South India, or Ancient India by V. D. Mahajan (latest Edition published after his death) or IGNOU notes are the best options. There are generally three questions at the maximum on Sangam age. Hence, it is better to add the notes here.)

    What was the name of the sect, which worshipped Vasudeva?
    With whom was Vasudeva identifies?
    When was the sect of Bhagavatas popular?
    When did the sect of Pashupati become popular?
    Whom did the devotees of Pashupati sect worshipped?
    What was the nature of the sects of Pashupat and Bhagavatas?
    What was more importance for Bhagavatas and Pashupat Worship or the sacrifices similar to that of Vedas?
    When did the Pashupat and Bhagavata sect get the their philosophy?
    Which of the school of Vaishnavite sect was more popular?
    How did the sect of Pancharatra raise the status of Vaishnavite sect?
    Who were the main deities of the Pancharatra sect?
    With which Aryan deity was Vasudeva identified?
    With whom was Prakriti of Sankhya school of Philosophy identified to raise the status of the philosophy of Vaishnavite sect?
    Who was Shankarshana?
    Who were identified with mana and ahankara (self-consciousness) in Vaishnavite Pancharatra?
    Who had created Pradumna?
    Who had created Aniruddha?
    Who were Pradumna and Aniruddha?
    What had followed the creation of Pradumna and Aniruddha?
    Write a note on the similarity of the philosophy of six schools of philosophy and the philosophy of Pancharatra?
    What is the similarity among the gods of Pancharatra and Bhagavatism?
    How is the monism introduced in Pancharatra?
    What is the main paradox on the levels of truths in Pancharatra School of Philosophy, and how it is different from the relation of the soul with the main World soul of Sankhya School of philosophy?
    What is peculiar in Pancharatra School of Philosophy about the state of the soul, on achieving the union with the ultimate soul (the World Soul)?
    Where was the doctrine of Pancharatra conceived for the first time?
    Where was the doctrine of Pancharatra written for the first time?
    Where was the doctoral development of Pancharatra School taking place apart form Kashmir?
    What was the peculiar feature of the Tamil development in Pancharatra School of Philosophy?
    What is the difference in the nature of Bhakti of a Bhagavata and of a Pancharatra?
    Where is the real aspect of Bhakti revealed in Bhagavata literature?
    How did a worshipper of Pancharatra sect worship his god?
    Where in Gita is the devotion similar to a Pancharatra devotee revealed?
    What was the dimension of the hero of a Pancharatra devotee?
    What was the dimension of the Bhakti of a Pancharatra devotee?
    What was the definition of the Divine grace for a devotee of Pancharatra?
    What was the value of the Divine grace for an ordinary devotee?
    Which concept was the predecessor of the Divine grace?
    Discuss how was the concept of Boddhisttava the predecessor of the Divine grace in Hinduism especially in the Pancharatra sect?
    When was the concept of the Divine grace accepted in the Hindusim, especially in the Pancharatra sect?
    Where did the concept of the Divine grace and parallel form of devotion develop in the Hindusim, especially in Pancharatra School of Philosophy?
    Which literary work is the first example of the development of the new devotional form concerning the Divine grace?
    When was the Ten Odes, incorporated in the Guide to the Lord Murugan, written?
    What is the major content of the Guide to the Lord Murugan?
    What changes had been brought to the image of the Lord Murugan in the Guide to the Lord Murugan, under the influence of the Devotional development?
    What was nature of the God, which developed under the influence of Devotionalism and represented the Guide to the Lord Murugan?
    Who expressed the new Devotionalism in the Middle literature?
    What was the major feature of the Tamil hymnodists of the Middle period?
    How was the new feature of the Tamil hymnodists different from their earlier devotionalism?
    What does the Tamil word anbu mean?
    What was peculiar to the worship of a Tamil devotee which resembles the Aryan worship of Varun?
    How far does the devotional aspect in Tamil literature influence rest of the literature?
    Was Shankra also influenced by the devotional feelings in his writings?
    What was the major feature of the philosophy of Shankra?
    What changes were brought in the Upanishads under the changes brought by the Devotionalism?
    Who had incorporated the changes in Upanishads, which reflected the changes of Devotionalism?
    Who was the Bhakti leader, which brought in the changes in literature that, was an example of Devotionalism?
    Where did Ramanuja teach?
    For how long did Ramanuja live?
    Which are the major works of Ramanuja?
    Where did Ramanuja teach apart from Srirangam?
    What was similarity between the teaching efforts of Ramanuja and Shankara?
    Which was the sect in which Ramanuja flourish?
    What was the difference in emphasis, in the teachings of Ramanuja, in comparison to the overall teachings of Pancharatra?
    What were the major premises of the teachings of Ramanuja?
    Did Ramanuja accept the theory of Shankra on the question of getting salvation through the route of knowledge?
    Did Ramanuja accept the ritualism as the means of attaining the salvation?
    What was the difference between the moksha of Ramanuja devotee and Shankra devotee?
    What was the difference between the level of moksha of a Ramanuja salvation and Shankra Salvation?
    What is the best mean of getting salvation as per Ramanuja?
    What is the main feature of the mean of salvation favoured by Ramanuja?
    Who is the main god in Bhakti Yoga?
    What is the position of a devotee in Bhakti Yoga?
    Which is the another mean of attaining of salvation apart form the Bhakti Yoga?
    What should be the attitude of the devotee who adopts the means of Prapatti?
    What was the qualification of the god of Ramanuja?
    What was the major feature of the power of the Ramanuja personal god, which could overrule the effects of the Karma theory?
    Which of the feature of Karma theory the personal god of Ramanuja could overlook?
    What was the intensity of the relation between the man and the god as compared to the relation of man and god of Shankra?
    How does Shankra explain the need of the god to create Maya?
    What is the position of the salvaged soul after joining the world soul as per the doctrine of Ramanuja?
    Explain the Vishistadvaitavada of Ramanuja?
    What will be the state of existence of the soul after salvation as per the Vishistadvaitavada of Ramanuja?
    What is significant historic importance of Ramanuja theory in comparison to Shankras' theory?
    Which were the two Tamil streams that developed by building on the doctrine of Ramanuja?
    What was the main feature of the Northern Tamil School concerning the question of salvation based on the doctrine of Ramanuja?
    What was the main feature of Southern Tamil School concerning the question of salvation based on the doctrine of Ramanuja?
    Name the religious teacher who flourished in thirteen century which gave a new direction to the doctrine of Ramanuja.
    When did Mahadeva flourished?
    Where did Mahadeva flourish?
    What is the name of the doctrine propounded by Mahadeva?
    What was the main feature of Dvaitavada of Mahadeva?
    What was the main argument of Mahadeva concerning the status of the divine souls and Vishnu?
    What was the status and power of Vishnu as per Dvaitavada?
    What did the devotees of Vishnu as per Dvaitavada expect of Vishnu?
    What will be the condition of Evil soul as per Dvaitavada?
    What will be condition of mediocre souls as per the Dvaitavada?
    Which was second important god in Dvaitavada?
    What was the relation of god Vayu with Vishnu in Dvaitavada?
    What was the role of Vayu in Dvaitavada?
    Which other religion is reflected in the teachings of Mahadeva's teachings?
    From where does Mahadeva doctrine acquire the influence of Christianity?
    Which are the features of Mahadeva Doctrine, which resembles Christianity?
    Write about the miracles performed by Mahadeva.
    What are the sources on the theology on Shaivism?
    What is the language of Agamas?
    What is Agamas?
    What changes did Nayanars bring to Agamas?
    Where are the Agamas developed by Nayanars found?
    When was Shaivasiddhanta written?
    Which the most famous literature of Shaivism in South India?
    What is the main teaching of Tamil Shaivism?
    What is Pati in Tamil Shaivism?
    What is pashu in Tamil Shaivism?
    What is pasha in Tamil Shaivism?
    What is the position of the soul after the salvation in Tamil Shaivism?
    What is the peculiar feature of Tamil Shaivism concerning the personality of Shiva?
    What is the character of Shiva in Tamil Shaivism?
    Which is the most monotheistic sect in Bhagavatism?
    What is the most important feature of Tamil Shaivism?
    What is the Kashmir Shaivism called?
    Why was the Kashmir Shaivism called Trika?
    How many sources are there in Kashmir Shaivism?
    With which earlier school of Bhagavatism did Kashmir Shaivism have similarity?
    What is the definition of Maya as per the Kashmir Shaivism?
    What is the condition of the existence of Maya as per the Kashmir Shaivism?
    What is the nature of the Kashmir Shaivism?
    What is the method of achieving salvation in Kashmir Shaivism?
    Who is the most popular exponent of Kashmir Shaivism?
    When did Abhinav Gupta exist?
    Which is the third important sect of Shaivism apart from Tamil and Kashmir Shaivism?
    Who is the founder of Lingyatas?
    Who was the royal patron of Basava, the founder of Lingyatas?
    What is the another name of Lingyatas?
    When did King Bijjala Kalachuri ascend the throne of Kalyani?
    Who was the ruler of Kalyani before 1156?
    What is the feature of the doctrine of Basava?
    What is more important feature of Lingyatas doctrine?
    What was the approach of Basava towards the icon worship?
    Which is the sacred symbol of Shiva in Basava Lingyatas?
    How does a Lingyatas treat the sacred symbol of Shiva?
    What were the attitude of Basava towards the Vedas and the Brahman priests?
    Which new class of priesthood did Basava establish?
    What was the attitude of Basava towards pilgrimage and sacrifice?
    Which three religious rites did Basava oppose?
    What is the position of remarriage for women in Lingyatas?
    What was the position of social classes in Lingyatas?
    Which of the death rite did Basava not favour?
    Which are the five religious rites that were opposed by Basava?
    Under what influence could Basava have adopted the rite of cremation of the dead?
    Where do the Lingyatas flourish in present India? What is the language of the sacred literature of the Lingyatas?



    Hindu Rites and Ceremonies:

    Which is the major religious rite in Hinduism, which differentiate it from Vedic religion?
    Which of the icon is worshipped in Hinduism?
    What are the ceremonies associated with the worship of icon?
    What had been the shape of the earlier temples and icons in Hindusim?
    Did the temple have any role in the Vedic times?
    When was the icon worship was introduced in India?
    When did India turn totally a country of temples?
    Which was the most important part in a temple?
    What was the second important feature of the vicinity of the Temple?
    What was the status of the ablution in rituals of Temple?
    Which were major other parts of the temple structure?
    What was the importance of the meeting hall in a temple in Hindusim?
    What was the position of congregational worship in Hinduism?
    What was the method of a worshipper to perform the worship in a temple?
    What was the position of worshipping in big temples?
    What was the position of animal sacrifice in the Hindu rituals?
    From where did the Hindu worship adopt the animal rituals?
    When did the Hindu worship adopt the animal worship?
    Which of the Bhagvat sect did not adopt the animal sacrifice? '
    Which of the Bhagvat sects adopted the animal sacrifice?
    What was the general practice of performing the animal sacrifice before an icon?
    How was the animal sacrifice of the Hindusim different from the animal sacrifice of the Vedic times?
    What was the justification of the performing the animal sacrifice?
    Which were the most favoured animal species in Hinduism?
    Was human sacrifice also practices in Hinduism?
    What was the status of execution of a criminal in Hinduism?
    Where were the daily sacrifice performed in Hinduism?
    Where did the religious suicide become popular in Hinduism?
    What was the tradition concerning the religious sacrifices?
    What was the status of Sati tradition?
    What were different names of the sects, which worshipped feminine divinities?
    What was the importance of the usual Hindu rites?
    Which were the rites recommended for the adept Hindu practitioner?
    What was the common place of meeting, of the practitioners of tantric rites in Hinduism?
    What is yantara or mandal in Tantric practices?
    What was the caste status in the tantric practices?
    What are the pancha makara in tantric practices?
    Where did the tantric practices still popular in India?



    Hindu Ethics

    Which is the core of the Hindu ethics?
    Which are the three main ends of life?
    What was the aim of the ascetic in Hindusim?
    What were the aims of the nonprofessionals in Hinduism?
    What are the contents of the Manasollasa?
    When was the Manasollasa written?
    List the main virtues of the Hindu ethics, which are expected from a Hindu.
    Which are the most important acts of piety in Hinduism?
    How many religious ethics are elaborated in the law book of Gautam?
    What was the status of the meat eating and touch with the untouchables in Hinduism?
    Which the most important ethic of the human relations?
    What is the position of the non-violence in Hinduism?
    Which is the common ethic of the Hindu literature books?
    What are the most important ethics of the Tamil literature?
    Name the Tamil literature from where we learn about the ethics of the Hindus?
    Which are the ethics, which are only peculiar to the Tamil literature?
    What are the different of Hindu ethics?
    What is duty of Brahman, which is sin to Shudra?
    What is the best source for learning the ethics of the Hindus?
    What is the core of the contents of the Bhagvat Gita?
    What is the major injunction to a Hindu in Gita?

    Chapter VII Ends here. Kindly refer to my next posting before continuing with the next chapter.

    I have found that some people are regularly visiting my bank. I need their comments. Do Respond.




    NON HINDU RELIGIONS

    Who had converted the Indian to Christianity for the first time?
    When was the Indian converted to Christianity for the first time?
    Who was the king, who sent an envoy to Syria?
    With whom did Saint Thomas come to India?
    Who had killed Saint Thomas?
    Where is the tomb of Saint Thomas situated in India?
    Which is the first available and authentic account of the Christian missionary work in India?
    Which sect of Christianity did the Indians adopt?
    From where did the Nestorian heresy come to India?
    Where did Christianity flourished in India for the first time?
    With which sect of Christianity did the Indians remain in contact?
    Who had seen the tomb of Saint Thomas in India?
    When did Marco Polo visit India?
    What changes had taken place among the Kerala Christian under the influence of Hindusim?
    Which is the first literary source to suggest the arrival of English man in India?
    Which king had send the first English man to India?
    What was the name of the envoy who was send by King Alfred in AD 884?
    From whom do we learn about the name of Swithelm?
    Who was Swithelm?
    Describe in detail the spread of Christianity in ancient India?

    1 comment:

    1. hi sumir ..

      just dropping a line to say 'thanks a ton!' .. i have visited your site more than a couple of times .. its really nice of you to compile such a comprehensive question bank ..

      i'm takin the prelims this may .. sadly, i havent read basham to utilise your question bank well .. i do get flummoxed as i land up not knowing many of the answers ..

      at the moment i'm done (for now) wit modern .. n starting with medeival tomorrow .. i plan to start revising ancient from arnd the 22nd of this month .. thats when i'll be coming bac to ur site wit a vengeance .. n thats when i hope to do better .. :)

      thanks again.

      cheers
      shubhadeep bhattacharya (schubho)

      (schubho@yahoo.com)

      p.s .. my blog is pretty much abandoned for now :)

      ReplyDelete

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