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  • Thursday, February 24, 2005

    Ancient History: Question Bank Two

    Chapter VII
    Religion in Ancient India

    Reference: Continued from the previous Post:


    The Section II BUDDHISM

    THE BUDDHA

    What was the main colour of the robes of Buddhist monks?
    What is the meaning of the word Buddha?
    What is the first sermon given by Buddha after his enlightenment called?
    From where do we learn about the basic teaching of Buddha?
    What is the status of the authenticity of the first sermon?
    What truism did Buddha stress upon?
    Name the tribe, which was headed by the father of Buddha?
    Name the region to which the Sakya tribe belonged?
    Which regions were benefited from the teachings of original Buddha?
    At what age did Buddha die?
    In which probable year did Buddha die? Which was the next possible date?
    Which area of the world was more influenced by the story and teaching of Buddha?
    Who was Mahamaya?
    Who was Shuddhodhana?
    What did Mahamaya have?
    At which lake had Mahamaya taken bath?
    Who had helped Mahamaya to take bath?
    What miraculous event took place in the dream of Mahamaya?
    What was the white elephant holding which entered the side of Mahamaya?
    What did the soothsayer prophesy after listening to the dream of Mahamaya?
    Where was the child Buddha born?
    Which was the capital of Sakya tribe?
    Where was Mahamaya going when Buddha was born to her?
    What did the newborn child do just after taking the birth?
    How many steps did the child walk after taking the birth?
    What did the newborn child announce?
    When the newborn boy was given the name?
    What name was given to the newborn child of Mahamaya?
    What was the gotra name of Siddhartha?
    What the majority of soothsayers prophesied?
    What was the view of one of the soothsayer who did not have similar judgement?
    What the soothsayer, who had different prediction for the young Siddhartha, said about the events which would proceed before Siddhartha become the universal teacher?
    What would the four signs do to Siddhartha?
    What steps did Suddhodhan take to prevent Siddhartha from becoming the universal teacher?
    What were taught to Siddhartha?
    Who was married to Siddhartha?
    What was the earlier relation of Yashodra with Siddhartha?
    How was Siddhartha married to Yashodra?
    Who became envious of Siddhartha when Siddhartha won Yashodra in a contest for a marriage?
    Who had placed the four signs before Siddhartha?
    Who was the charioteer of Siddhartha when he saw the four signs?
    What was the first sign?
    What did Siddhartha learned about the old man from Channa?
    What was the second sign?
    Name the last two signs in order?
    When did Siddhartha decide to become wanderer?
    What was the reaction of Suddhodhan when he learned that his son Siddhartha had seen the four signs?
    What was the mental state of the mind of Siddhartha after watching the four signs?
    On which day did Siddhartha leave his home to become wanderer?
    What was the name of the horse on which he abandoned his home?
    Whose help did Siddhartha take to leave his house apart from his horse Chanukah?
    What role did the demigods perform during his departure?
    Describe Maha abhinish kramana.
    What was his first state of life after renunciation?
    What was his second state of life after renunciation?
    From whom did he learn meditation and Upanishad?
    What was his view about the efficacy of mental training and knowledge?
    When he abandoned the Upanishadic practices, what did he do?
    What position did he acquire among his five co practitioners and why?
    For how long did Siddhartha continue with the rigorous regime of self-mortification?
    What was the result of his rigorous practices?
    What was his response to his own rigorous practices in the final stage?
    What gift did Sujata give to Siddhartha?
    Where was Siddhartha sitting when he received the gift from Sujata?
    In whose realm was he camping when he received the gift from Sujata? Which river was flowing by when he received the gift in the Maghdhan empire of Bimbisar?
    What resolve did he take after receiving the gift?
    For how many days Siddhartha sit under the pipal tree.
    Which spirit had tried to disrupt his meditation of 49 days?
    What bad news Mara gave about Devadatta?
    What gentler means did Mara adopted.
    Who were Mara's three daughters?
    What was the final offer to Siddhartha by Mara?
    On which day Siddhartha acquired the final knowledge.
    What knowledge did Siddhartha get?
    For how many days Buddha himself meditated on his newly acquired knowledge.
    Who persuaded him to spread his knowledge?
    Why was Buddha hesitating to spread his knowledge?
    Where did he deliver his first sermon?
    To whom did he deliver his first sermon?
    What is his act of first sermon called in Buddhist terms?
    Who became his first disciple?
    Who became his followers in the second round?
    Where did he send his sixty followers?
    In which region did his name became more popular?
    What was the attitude of the kings of the region towards him?
    What was the group of his disciple called?
    What was the binding factor among the disciples or the Bhikkhus?
    What is the actual meaning of Bikkhu?
    Which language has the word Bikkhu?
    Whom did he convert to his faith from his family at Kapilvastu?
    Who was his foster mother?
    What did Krishna Gautami seek from Buddha, which he was not ready to accept but later reluctantly gave to the request of Krishna Gautami, his foster mother?
    What did Devadatta plan for Buddha?
    How was the plan of Devadatta against Buddha failed?
    How was his relation with Sakya and Koliya?
    What was his relation with Angulimal?
    What was the stand of Buddha on the questions of performing the miracles?
    For how many months did Buddha and his followers remain on tour for preaching?
    What did Buddha and his followers did during the four months when they were not on tour of preaching?
    Where did Buddha and his followers stay during their rest days?
    In what type of boarding did Buddha and his followers stay during the four-month of their stay?
    What was the importance of the place of their stay for the later times?
    Who usually provided them with the boarding during their stay for four months
    For how many years he continues with his propagation.
    What was his society of followers called?
    Who was the only person who conspired against Buddha?
    Was the Buddhist monk prosecuted during the lifetime of Buddha?
    Was the overall period of Buddha's life peaceful?
    At what age did Buddha pass away?
    Where did he pass his last days of life?
    What was the season during hid last days of life?
    Near which city did he pass his last days of his life?
    In which direction did Buddha leaves Vaisali before his death?
    Which area was situated in the north of Vaisali to which he left before his death?
    Did Buddha have premonition of his impending death?
    What was the last message of Buddha to his confident followers?
    What did he tell on the question of leader after his death?
    What was the suggestion to the followers by the Buddha on the question of future guide after his death?
    In which town did he take his last meal?
    Who served him his last meal
    What was his last meal?
    What was the caste of Cunda?
    What is the Pali word for the pork meal served to Buddha?
    From which ailment did his suffer at the time of his death?
    To which town did he move after inflicted with dysentery?
    Under which tree did he die out side Kushinagar?
    What was his last message just before the death?
    What was the incidence of his death called in the Pali literature?
    What was done to his mortal remains?
    Among who was his ashes distributed.
    Who was the monarch who received a share of the ashes of Buddha?

    THE GROWTH OF BUDDHISM

    Where did the monks gather just after the death of Buddha?
    What was the political importance of Rajgriha, where the Buddhist monks gather after the death of Buddha?
    Who recited the Vinaya Pitaka at Rajgriha gathering?
    What was the status of Upali near Buddha and in the gathering?
    What are the contents of Vinaya Pitaka?
    Who had recited Sutta Pitaka at Rajgriha assembly?
    What was the position of Ananda in the monks gathering and near to Buddha?
    What is the nature of the contents of the Sutta Pitaka?
    When did the second assembly of Buddhist monks take place?
    Where did the second assembly of Buddhism take place?
    After how many years the second assembly had taken place.
    What was the most historic value of the second of second assembly of Buddhism, which took place at Vaisali?
    On what question did the schism take place in the second assembly of Buddhism?
    Which two major divisions, which later develop into cleat cut sects, did emerge at the second assembly?
    What was the major issue of contention in the second assembly of Buddhism, which took place at Vaisali?
    What course did the schism take after the assembly?
    Where did the third assembly of Buddhism take place?
    Who was the patron of the third assembly of Buddhism, which took place at Patliputra?
    What were the major contentious issues at the Patliputra assembly?
    What were the major decisions taken about the heretics in the third assembly held at Patliputra?
    Which sect of Buddhism emerged and established itself as the most orthodox sect of Buddhism?
    What was the literary and which canon of Buddhism was written in the third assembly of Buddhism held at Patliputra.
    What was the nature of the contents of Kathavattu?
    To which canonical work was Kathavattu added?
    What was the overall and major importance of the third assembly of Buddhism, which was held at Patliputra?
    Had Buddha thought of making his doctrine a base for a separate religion?
    Did there exist any direct antagonism between Buddhism and any other religion during the lifetime of Buddhism?
    With which other religions did Buddhism develop contentions on later date?
    What was the nature of the contention between Buddhism at on hand and Jainism and Ajivikas on the other hand?
    Had Buddha tried to develop his followings in a continuos manner?
    By what period did Buddhism have acquired the status of being a distinctive religion?
    What is the historic proof on the question of distinctive status of Buddhism as a religion?
    Which are the categories of the religions, which had found mention in the inscriptions of Ashoka?
    What had Ashoka written about Buddhism in his inscriptions?
    When was India covered with viharas?
    What was the importance of viharas?
    From where did Buddhism borrow his strength to become popular?
    Which is the important ritual, which Buddhism borrowed from the popular religion?
    What is Chatiyas?
    What was the importance of Chatiyas?
    Why were the Chatiyas more important?
    What was the attitude of Buddhism towards local Chatiyas?
    From the literature of which other religion, do we get the proof of the existence and the importance of Chatiyas for those times?
    Which practice did the Buddhist monks abandon soon after the death of Buddha?
    Where did the Buddhist monks establish their permanent abode after abandoning the practice of regular tour for eight months much favoured by Buddha during his lifetime?
    What was the later development concerning the permanent abode established by the Buddhist monks after abandoning the practice of four month tour?
    Which local feature did the Buddhism adopt after the death of Buddha, which was more near to the liking of native Indians and resulted in the popularity of Buddhism?
    What was the genesis of Stupas?
    What trend did the raising of Stupas started on the religious scene of the country?
    How did Ashoka encourage the Stupas culture all over the country?
    What was the background of the sacred trees, which were revered as Boddhi tree grown around various Stupas by the Buddhists?
    How was the original Boddhi tree, under which Buddha got enlightenment was treated?
    How was the original Boddhi tree was used to spread the culture of Buddhist sacred tree?
    What was the another peculiar feature of Buddhist features borrowed from the local cults?
    What is the position of column in the Buddhism now these days?
    What was the genesis of the column feature in the local cults?
    When were the proper temples and shrines were raised in Buddhism?
    Which another important feature emerged with the rising of the temples?
    In what form was Buddha worshipped in the temples?
    What was the attitude of the simpler followers towards Buddha during his lifetime?
    In what form, was Buddha worshipped just after his death?
    What is the significance of Stupas and tree in the worship rites of Buddhism?
    Describe the major practice of worship in Buddhism?
    In which direction, the circumambulation was considered auspicious in Buddhism.
    What was the importance of Buddha as a person for an intelligent follower of Buddhism?
    How did an ordinary follower of Buddhism treat Buddha?
    By what time, did the theology developed, which gave the recognition to the belief of the common follower of Buddhism that Buddha was a god in himself?
    What did the support of Ashok do to the spread of Buddhism?
    Where did Buddhism spread with the help of Ashoka?
    Was the doctrine of Buddhism put in black and white by the time of Ashoka?
    Which are the four main places of pilgrimage for the Buddhist?
    What is the significance of the four places of pilgrimage for the Buddhism?
    During whose period, the Buddhist was prosecuted.
    How long did Buddhism flourish in spite of the prosecution by the Sung dynasty?
    The remains of which religion are in abundance, which were found between 200 BC and 200 AD?
    To which religion does the major portion of remains of 200 BC to 200 AD belong?
    What change was observed concerning the architecture of Stupas?
    Which class of society was the main donor to Buddhist Order?
    From where do we learn that mostly the rich class was the main donor to Buddhism?
    What was the monetary status of the monasteries of Buddhist order?
    What were the vows of the Buddhist monk concerning the wealth and possessions?
    What type of source of income was there for the monasteries?
    From where do we learn that the Buddhist monks had started taking their vow of non-possession lightly?
    Were there sects in Buddhism?
    Were the different sects having the common scriptures?
    Was there open animosity within the Buddhist order?
    Which sect was the dominating the regions of Mathura and Kashmir?
    According to which tradition it is recorded that the fourth assembly of Buddhism was held during the time of Kanishak.
    Which sect was dominating the proceeding of the fourth assembly?
    Which book was compiled in the fourth assembly?
    What was the nature of Mahavibhasha?
    Which doctrine were the bases of the creation of the doctrine of the Lesser vehicle and the Great vehicle?
    What change had taken place in the mode of worship of the Brahmins?
    What historic incidence had exposed Buddhism to the influence of West?
    What was the main idea behind the Great Vehicle?
    What was the influence over the emergence of the Great Vehicle?
    What was the attitude of the Lesser vehicle?
    Which sect was dominating the doctrine of Lesser Vehicle?
    What was the cause of the popularity of the Great Vehicle?
    What is the name of Great and Lesser Vehicle in Buddhism?
    Where did the lesser Vehicle able to maintain its control?
    In which countries the Lesser Vehicle spread its influence from Ceylon.
    What changes took place in Mahayanna after its establishment?
    Where did Mahayanna spread its influence and in what way?
    Up to what time did Mahayanna maintain its influence in India and what is the historic evidence in its support?
    What was the observation of Hieun Tsang about the popularity of Lesser Vehicle during the Guptan period?
    What was the cause of the waning popularity of Lesser Vehicle in North India during the Guptan Period?
    What was the peculiar feature of Guptan Religious scenario?
    What was the overall condition about the popularity of Buddhism during the Guptan period?
    What was the evidence of the decline of Buddhism in North India during the Guptan Period?
    Had the faith also lost the importance during the Guptan period?
    What was the evidence, which suggest that in spite of the decline in the popularity, Buddhism was alive and kicking?
    How long did Buddhism remain popular in North India?
    Who were the last patrons of Buddhism in North India before its final exit from the North India?
    Who went to Tibet in 8th century to convert Tibet to Buddhism?
    From where did Padamsambhava go to Tibet for converting Tibet to Buddhism?
    Next Para, page 267
    What was the general standard of culture in North India during eighth century?
    When did the primitive ideas of sympathetic magic and sexual mysticism start pervading the Indian religion?
    Which sect of Buddhism was the result of sympathetic magic and sexual mysticism?
    What influence did sympathetic magic and sexual mysticism leave on the pantheon of Buddhism?
    When did Vajaryanna emerge on the scene?
    Where did Vajaryanna emerge for the first time?
    Which areas in India did the Vajaryanna influence?
    Which was the major university for Vajaryanna?
    In which century, did Vajaryanna travel to Tibet?
    Which aspect of Buddhism influenced Tibet?
    Is Padamsambhava Buddhism different from Vikramshila Buddhism? If so then how?
    Did prosecution of Buddhism take place during the Guptan Period?
    Which were the most dependable historic evidences about the prosecution of Buddhism during the golden period?
    Where was Shashanka going when he virtually uprooted the Boddhi tree?
    Where is Kanyakubja?
    When did the incidence of harming the Boddhi tree take place?
    Was the persecution of Buddhism by non-Buddhist people the cause of disappearance of Buddhism?
    Which was the main factor that caused the disappearance of Buddhism from India?
    From where did the revived and reformed Hinduism come to North India?
    What was the exponent of the revived and reformed Hinduism?
    What did the disputation of Shankra with Buddhist suggest of the status of Buddhism in ninth century?
    In which century did the revived and reformed Hinduism emerge?
    Which factor had continued the march of Hinduism even after the death of Shankracharya?
    What was the peculiar nature of the Hinduism, which Shankracharya revived?
    What was the importance of devotional aspect of revived and reformed Hinduism?
    Which was the another feature of Hinduism, which caused the disappearance of Buddhism?
    From which time the Buddhist, monks had been taking art in the Hindu religious processions.
    In which aspect of earthly life did the Buddhist, families take the help of the Hindu Brahmins.
    What was the vision of the common person about the Buddhism and what was the vision of the Buddhist about the Buddhism as a religion?

    An observation:

    The main thesis of the book(The Wonder that was India by A. L. Basham) is that the main cause of the disappearance of Buddhism was assimilation power of Hinduism. Hinduism continues to change in response to the changing time. Secondly, it was only for the time since Buddhism emerged as a separate religion but on ground level, there remained some factor, which never separated it from Hinduism. The Buddhist families continue to take the services of the Brahmins who had been performing the rites as per the Vedic tradition on the family occasions. They performed the Vedic rites in Buddhist families when the Buddhist family totally opposed and rejected the Vedic way of life.
    Further, the common person had never developed the perception and faith that the Buddhism was a separated religion. They considered it as the part of the Hinduism. If the religion had been given separated status it was only among the Buddhist among themselves that they considered themselves as the followers of a different religion different from the Vedic religion.
    On the analysis, all the above observations, which are as understood from the reading of the book, are mere assumption of the writer. It may be result of his reading from the source material. It may be his interpretation. It may be considered as the analysis of a man from different culture of the Indian culture. The author is an Australian who had worked in Calcutta with a British University.

    What was the common person's vision of the common person on the contents of Buddhism?
    What was the status of Buddhism by the ninth century in North India vis-a-vis Hinduism and especially Vaishanism?
    What was the strength of Hinduism, which helped it to survive for such a long time even the onslaught of Muslim invasion?
    What was the spread of Buddhism at the time of Muslim attack?
    Why did Buddhism did not survive the attack of Muslims where as Hinduism was able top survive?
    What was the first injury to Buddhism inflicted by the Muslim invasion the Gangetic region and Nalanda?
    What was the response of the Buddhism in face of the attack of Muslim invasion on their monasteries?
    Did the monasteries survive the Muslim onslaught? What is the historic proof?
    THE LESSER VEHICLE: Hinyana : The Oldest One : Other Name: Sthaviravadin
    Where was the Pali canon of Sthaviravadin School of Buddhism written?
    During whose regime were the books of Sthaviravadin School committed to writing?
    In whose authority the Sthaviravadin Pali canon was written.
    Which were the other sources of the authoritative Sthaviravadin Canon?
    What doubts had been raised on the exactness of the Sthaviravadin Canon?
    Was Vinaya Pitaka readily available to Fa-hsein?
    Which other language was used to write the commentaries in Ceylon?
    Who was the authority on the canon and commentaries, which was also given the task of revising the works in Ceylon in fifth century?
    Which are the three main books of Pali canon of Sthaviravadin School of Buddhism?
    What are the meaning of the words, Vinaya, Sutta, and Abhidhamma?
    What are the contents of Vinaya Pitak?
    Who is the speaker in the Vinaya Pitak?
    In what context we learn about the earlier traditions from the contents of the Vinaya Pitak?
    Which is the most important Pitak?
    In how many Nikes is Sutta Pitak divided?
    What id the meaning of Nikaya?
    What is the content of Digha Nikaya
    What id the content of Majjhima Nikaya?
    What is the content of Samyutta Nikaya?
    What id the content of Angutra Nikaya?
    What is the content of Khuddaka Nikaya?
    What is the meaning of the word, Digha, Majjhima, Samyutta, Angutra, and Khuddaka?
    How many statements are there in Angutra Nikaya?
    How many sections are there in Angutra Nikaya?
    Wharf is the literary variety of Khuddaka Nikaya?
    How old are the contents of Khuddaka Nikaya?
    What is Dhammapada of Khuddaka Nikaya about?
    What are theragatha and therigatha in Khuddaka Nikaya?
    What id the contents of Jataka?
    How many Jataka poems are there?
    What are the contents of the poems of the Jataka?
    Who was suppose to narrate the poems of Jataka and how?
    Who had written in prose the contents of the poems of the Jataka?
    What is the central idea of the contents of the Jataka Poems?
    Who is considered as the original narrator of the stories in the Jataka poems and when had he narrated the stories?
    For what form of the historic interpretation can the contents of the Jataka, stories are used?
    What are the contents of the Abhidhamma Pitaka?
    When was the Abhidhamma Pitaka written?
    List the important semi-canonical works?
    What was the content of Milinda-Panha?
    Who are the two persons in Milinda-Panha?
    What is the meaning, content, period of writing of Dipavamsa?
    What is the meaning, content, period of writing of Mahavamsa?
    What id the meaning, content and period of writing of Culavamsa?
    What was the nature of the contents of Sinhalese literature?
    What is core philosophy of the Buddhism Sthaviravadin School?
    What is position of soul as per the canon of Sthaviravadin School?
    Where do we expect to find the original and basic teaching of Buddhism?
    Where was the Dharamchakra parivartan Sutta narrated?
    What is the Pali pronunciation of the Dharamchakra parivartan?
    What main teaching of Buddhism is found in the Turning of the Wheel of Truth?
    On which Buddhist teaching there is consensus among the various sects of Buddhism.
    To who did Buddha told the first truth at Varanasi, which is popular as the Turning of the Wheel of Truth?
    Narrate the middle path and the four truths?
    What is the truth of sorrow?
    What was the highly modified form of the casual relation, which grew from sorrow?
    What is the position of Pattica samuppada and what is its English translation?
    Describe the contents of Pattica Samuppada?
    What is the summary of the teaching of the sorrows?
    What is the basic nature of universe?
    What are the salient characteristics of universe?
    What is the sixth sense according to the Pattica Samuppada?
    What is the basic nature of universe?
    What was the basic stand of Buddhism on the question of sorrow and happiness?
    What is the main aim of the Buddhism as per Buddha himself?
    In what state is the universe?
    Is there any continuos entity in universe?
    Which other philosophy resembles Buddhism on the question of transient nature of Buddhism?
    Which are the five constituent psychosomatic elements used in making the man?
    In what state are the five psychosomatic elements are in the man?
    Is there a permanent substratum in ever changing state of psychosomatic elements of man?
    What is the link between ever changing state of the man?
    Buddhism knows no being but only becoming. Discuss.
    What is the basic rule guiding the existence at one point of the time?
    What is the cause of the sense of permanence of which man claims to be true?
    Is there any mortal soul? Discuss the view on the soul, as it is Buddhism.
    What is peculiar in the philosophy of continuos change in Buddhism?
    Is the World Soul of Upanishad true as per Buddhism?
    The religion of Lesser Vehicle is without soul and without god! Discuss.
    Did the Buddhist thinker have the complete faith in the non-existence of god? If no, then what type of the interpretation they give on the question of the god?
    How did the Buddhist treat the question of the existence of god in their efforts to get salvation?
    What is the basic contradiction the theory of transmigration as given by Buddha?
    Which analogies were used to explain the contradiction in the theory of transmigration as given in Buddhism?
    Which is the only stable entity ion Buddhism?
    What is the meaning of Arihanta?
    How could stability of Nirvana be justified in the philosophy of Buddhism, which put complete faith ever changing nature of universe?
    What is near to the state of World Soul in Buddhism?
    What is the figurative explanation of Nirvana?
    When could Nirvana be achieved?
    Is the attainment of Nirvana bound by time and place?
    Could the state of Nirvana lost?
    In which countries the Sthavirvadin school of Lesser Vehicle popular?
    Which is the another school of Sthaviravadin popular in India?
    What was the basic difference between Sthavirvadin and Sarvasativadins?
    Which language was used to write the doctrines of Sarvasativadins?
    What is the meaning of Sarvasativadins?
    Which was the other school, apart from Sarvasativadins, that was popular in India?
    What were the major postulates of Sautrantikas?
    What relation Sautrantiks had with the Great Vehicle?
    Name the fourth sect, which was popular apart from that of Sthavirvadin, Sarvasativadins, and Sautrantiks?
    Which Buddhist sects influenced the growth of the Indian philosophy and helped it develop feature apart from the mystical thoughts?
    What was the stand of Buddha on the question of the origin of the universe or cosmology?
    Which school of thought of Buddhism developed the scheme of cosmology?
    Which views had influenced the view of Buddhist cosmology?
    Is there any creator in the cosmology of Buddhism?
    What is the nature of the change of universe as per the Buddhist cosmology?
    Which is the basic time period in the Buddhist cosmology?
    In how many divisions a Mahakalpa was divided.
    What is the situation in the first asankhyeya of mahakalpa?
    Where will the good go in the end of the fourth asankhyeya?
    Where will the sinners go in the end of the fourth asankhyeya?
    What is the situation of the first asankhyeya?
    What will happen in the second asankhyeya?
    What will happen in the third asankhyeya?
    What is the course of the third asankhyeya?
    What will happen in the fourth asankhyeya?
    How will Mahakalpa behave after its completion?
    Are all the Mahakalpa of the same duration?
    Which are the different Mahakalpa?
    In which type of Mahakalpa are we living?
    Name the five Buddhas of our mahakalpa?
    What is the position of fifth Buddha?

    The Evolution of the Great Vehicle: Mahayana (The Sect of Bodhistava: Promoted during time of Kanishka)

    Was Buddha supernatural as per the Pali literature?
    How was Buddha able to achieve his insight into the mystery of the universe?
    Who is Shakra as per the Buddhists?
    What are the significance of the birth, enlightenment and the death of Buddhism?
    Who had reverence for Buddha's achievements?
    What is the other way of getting Nirvana apart from adopting the middle path in Buddhism?
    Where do we find the information that one can achieve Nirvana by having faith in Buddha and love for him?
    What is the actual situation of Buddha himself now?
    Who had been declared the leader of the Buddhist followers by Buddha himself?
    What are the three Jewels in Buddhism?
    What is the significance of three Jewels in Buddhism?
    In response to which requirement, was the concept of three Jewels adopted and what was the suggestion of Buddha in that regard?
    Who could recite the three Jewels?
    Did ever Buddha suggest that he be last in the chain of earlier Buddhas?
    Were there any other Buddhas who were revere during the lifetime of Buddha?
    When did the cult of the earlier Buddha flourished?
    Who was the patron of the cult of the earlier Buddha?
    How many Buddhas are there as per the orthodox Sthaviravadin School of Buddhism?
    Who are pratyeka-buddhas and which cult was concerned with them?
    When were the Stupas of Bharhut and Sanchi executed?
    What was shown on the newly carved carvings of Bharhut and Sanchi?
    What was the motif of reverence for the devotees on the cravings of the Bharhut and Sanchi Stupas carved in the second and first century B C?
    What followed the carving of the Stupas, which was near to the worship practice of Hinduism of later times?
    Did Lesser Vehicle also take to the idol worship?
    How was the idol of the Buddha worshipped?
    What is considered the genesis of the concept of the future Buddha?
    By what time the influence of Zorastrianism would have started working on the Buddhist idea of future Buddha.
    By what time the concept of the future, Buddha was materialized.
    What was the name of the future Buddha?
    How does the concept of Boddhisttava work on the Buddha?
    What inference had been made on the Boddhisttava existence of Buddha?
    What is the basis of the possibility of the existence of the Boddhisttava?
    How are the Boddhisttava presented in Jataka stories?
    What is the version about the higher Boddhisttava in Jataka stories?
    Are Boddhisttava omniscient and almighty in their right?
    Why should the Boddhisttava be invariably worshipped?
    What is the contribution of the concept of Boddhisttava to the mythological developments in Buddhism?
    What is the basis of the rise of Mahayana mythology?
    Special note: it is suggested that there existed another cult along with Buddha. According to that cult, Buddha had existed before also and it was his final birth. When he was existing earlier before taking the present birth, he existed as the Boddhisttava. As Buddha had existed as Boddhisttava, there is possibility of the existence of numerous other similar Boddhisttava. This cult, about which even Buddha himself had referred to and there is reference to existence of such a cult during the time of Ashok also, that the basic theory of Boddhisttava, which was the central core of the Mahayana cult, developed. It is further suggested in the foregoing paragraphs that the idea of a savior or the Boddhisttava was developed under the influence of Zorastrianism, which had also advocate the existence of the saviors who were always busy with efforts to bring happiness to the man kind and would exist as long as whole of the humanity might get the salvation.

    Great Vehicle Or Mahayana: The Great Avalokiteshvara

    What is the older doctrine about the conduct of the personal life and aims of the Boddhisttava?
    What is the advice to the common person for achieving the Nirvana under Boddhisttava doctrine?
    What is the nature of Boddhisttava?
    Why would Boddhisttava not take Nirvana?
    How long would Boddhisttava not take Nirvana?
    What is the attractive aspect of the character of the Boddhisttava in the doctrine of Great Vehicle?
    How was the idea of Arihant rated, which was popular in Lesser Vehicle?
    What is the first aim for the man as per the Great Vehicle and what is it in case of Lesser Vehicle as per the Great Vehicle doctrine?
    What should an individual do with his spiritual merits, especially the Boddhisttava?
    What is the special feature of the teachings concerning the transfer of merit as per the Great Vehicle theory?
    How far could a man help other in his spiritual striving as per the Lesser Vehicle?
    What is the advice to the individual for the attainment of the salvation in Lesser Vehicle?
    Why was the idea of transfer of merits more popular and did it influenced the Lesser Vehicle also.
    In what aspect of Buddhists activity the idea of the transfer of the spiritual merits had been depicted.
    What was the other feature of the character of Boddhisttava apart from being a compassionate being?
    What is the basic content of the vows of Boddhisttava where he is shown as a compassionate and a suffering for others?
    When was the feature of savior adopted by the Buddhism?
    Did the feature of savuour existed even before the Christian era in India?
    How can the savior tradition in Buddhism be traced to the influence of Christianity on Buddhism?
    List the main Boddhisttava of Great Vehicle.
    Which is the chief Boddhisttava, which has great influence over earth?
    What is the another name of the Boddhisttava Avalokiteshvara?
    What id the meaning of the word Avalokiteshvara?
    What is the meaning of the word Padmpani?
    What is the special feature of the character of Padmpani?
    How far Padmpani was compassionate and in order to achieve his true character, where could he spread his influence?
    What are the meaning and the significance of Avichi?
    What is the role of Manjushri?
    How is Manjushri usually shown?
    What does the naked sword in the hand of Manjushri signify?
    What is Paramitas in Buddhism?
    Where do we find the Paramitas in Mahayana?
    What is the overall significance of Paramitas?
    What is the special feature of the character of the Boddhisttava Vajrapani?
    What is the weapon of Vajrapani?
    Who is the future Boddhisttava or Buddha?
    What is the feature of the character of Maitreya?
    What is the role of the Boddhisttava Kshitigarbha?
    What is the actual role of Kshitigarbha?
    What is the name of the purgatory of Buddhism?
    What is the basic feature of the character of Kshitigarbha?
    On what point, Mahayana concedes with Hinayana.
    How does Mahayana score over Hinayana on the question of the possibility of the annihilation of Dukkhha?
    What is the most positive point of the Mahayana Buddhism?
    List more than five Paramitas.
    How does Mahayana present Buddha?
    To which earliest division does Mahayana belong?
    Which are the three feature of the Buddha in his spiritual existence meant for the earth?
    Which of the feature of the spiritual existence on Buddha revealed itself on the earth?
    Where do we can find Dharamkaya?
    Where do we find Sambhogkaya?
    In which of his feature was real, Buddha instilled.
    How long would Sambhogkaya continue to exist?
    How is the Nirmankaya dependent on the Sambhogkaya?
    In which religion do we have parallel to the three feature of spiritual being as shown in Buddhism and from what source could that feature have influenced the Buddhism?
    Which the heavens of the Mahayana Buddhism?
    Who is the presiding deity of Sukhavati?
    Describe the scene at Sukhavati?
    What is the other name of Sambhogkaya when it is the presiding deity of Sukhavati?
    What is the meaning of the words Amitabha and Amitayus?
    Which feature does Amitabha share with Boddhisttavas?
    How far is the feature of compassion of Amitabha superior to that of the earthly Boddhittavas?
    How does Amitabha help the souls, which exist in his Sukhavati in form of Lotus?
    What is Chinese and Japanese faith concerning the benign feature of the name of Amitabha?
    What is the status of Amitabha in Sukhavati apart from being the presiding deity of that place?
    Which of the three Mahayana deities are dominating our part of the world and our period?
    What is near to the World Soul of Upanishad in Mahayana Buddhism?
    What is the overall significance of Body of Essence in the Mahayana Buddhism?
    What is the other popular name for the Body of Essence-Dharamkaya?
    What is the other name of Adi Buddha, which is the other name of Dharamkaya?
    What are the meaning of Sunya, Tattava, Bodhi and Tathagatgarbha and what is their significance in Mahayana school of Buddhism?
    What is the real feature of Adi-Buddha or Amitabha?
    What is the absolute Brahman in Mahayana school of Buddhism?
    How does Mahayana explain the Nirvana?
    How does Mahayana rate above Sthaviravadin School of Buddhism in explaining the state of Nirvana?
    What is the significance of the emergence of the concept of Adi Buddha?
    Which is the more important literature for the Mahayana school of Buddhism?
    Which language had been the official language of Mahayana Literature in the North India?
    Had Sanskrit been the official language of the Mahayana literature in other part of the world?
    What is the significance of Vaipulya Sutra?
    What is the difference between the Vaipulya Sutra and Sutta Pitaka?
    Which is the most important Mahayana text?
    What is the content of the Lalitvistara?
    List the important Mahayana Literature?
    What is the meaning of Saddharmapundarika?
    What is the meaning of Vajracchedika?
    What is the content matter of Sukhavativyuha?
    What is the content matter of Karandavyuha?
    What is the content matter of Ashtasaharikaprajnaparamita?
    What are the other contributions of Mahayana to Literature?
    Why did Sthaviravadin School of Buddhism not produce literature comparable to Mahayana literature?
    Which is the two main philosophical school of Mahayana school of Buddhism?
    What is the English meaning of Madhyamika?
    What is the significance of the Madhyamika School of Mahayana?
    What is the nature of the philosophy of orthodox Sthavirvadin Buddhism?
    What is the nature of the philosophy of Yogachara School of Mahayana?
    Who was the exponent of Madhyamika School of Mahayana philosophy?
    When did Nagarjuna flourished?
    Which is Semitic literature of Madhyamika School?
    What is the basic theory of Buddhism on the nature of universe?
    What is the basic argument in the philosophy of Nagarjuna of Shunyataa?
    What is the parallel philosophy in Western philosophy to Nagarjuna Void theory?
    How was Nagarjuna Void philosophy different from Western Nihilism?
    How had Nagarjuna Nihilism derived its positive approach?
    What is Nirvana in Nagarjuna Void?
    What is the final assertion of Madhyamika School about Nirvana?
    What is the meaning of Yogachara in Buddhist philosophy?
    What is the another word for the Yogachara Philosophy of Mahayana Buddhism?
    What is the attitude of Yogachara Philosophy towards the uncompromising realism of Lesser Vehicle?
    How is different from qualified realism of Madhyamika School and in what philosophical word we can suggest its real nature?
    What is the basic postulate of Yogachara School of Buddhist Philosophy?
    What is only true in Yogachara School of Buddhist philosophy and which is the parallel reality in Nagarjuna Madhyamika School of Buddhist Philosophy?
    Which between Madhyamika and Yogachara School of Buddhist philosophy was more popular?
    Which among Yogachara and Madhyamika had more philosopher and logicians?
    Who was the main exponent of Yogachara School of Buddhist Philosophy?
    To which city and period did Asanga belong?
    Which book did Asanga wrote which is considered to be the earliest book of Yogachara Philosophy of Buddhism?
    Who was the brother of Asanga, who was equally important exponent of Yogachara Philosophy of Buddhism?
    Why are Dignag and Dharmakirti popular in Buddhism and with which school of Buddhist philosophy are they associated?
    Name the two popular logicians of the Yogachara School of Buddhist Philosophy?
    Name the most important book on Yogachara School of Philosophy?
    Which was the first feministic divinity in Great Vehicle?
    What was the status of Prajnaparamita?


    The Vehicle of Thunderbolt: (Vajrayanna : This aspect of Buddhism has been touched in multiple choice questions more often. Give good attention to it)

    Which was the first feministic divinity in Great Vehicle?
    What was the status of Prajnaparamita?
    What is the significance of joining female divinities with every Buddha and Boddhisttava?
    Which is distinctive feature of Boddhisttava pantheon, which resembles the pairs of the Hindu gods?
    What was the activity of the goddesses, which is similar to activity of the Hindu goddesses?
    What was the nature of the production activity of the Boddhisttava in Mahayana when the female divinities were joined with them? In which religious thought was such an activity of the production mooted?
    What types of religious rites were added to the other rites when the sexual symbolism was accepted in Hinduism and Buddhism?
    Which new feature was added to the Buddhist religion with the emergence of the sexual symbolism?
    What was the main instruction on the loss of individuality given in Sthaviravadin School of Buddhist philosophy (Lesser Vehicle)?
    What was the suggestion and belief of the Great Vehicle (Sarvastivada) on the question of the loss of individuality by a Buddhist practitioner?
    Magical power was new source of achieving the loss of individuality. What was the word for that magical power?
    What was the genesis of the Vajaryana Buddhism?
    Which school of Buddhism emerged from the Mahayana, which reposed faith in he magical power as the means of destroying the individuality that can facilitate the acquiring of Nirvana?
    What was the view of Sthaviravadin on the question of magical power and its importance?
    What did some of the freelance Buddhist monks practice which was not advocated by Buddha?
    How were the main exponents of the Vajaryana Buddhism?
    Under whose patronage the followers of Vajaryana flourished.
    Which the earliest foreign evidence of the existence of the Vajaryana sect?
    What could be the earliest period of the existence of Vajaryana sect?
    Who were reigning deities of Vajaryana?
    What was the status of Taras?
    Name the lesser Deities of Vajaryana?
    What was the nature of the lesser Deities in Vajaryana?
    List the main lesser deities of Vajaryana?
    In what form the Taras along with corresponding Boddhisttava and Buddhas were shown?
    What was the attitude towards the lesser deities of the practitioner of Vajaryana School?
    In which religion was there attitude of compelling the divine existence to work for the wishes of the devotee?
    What was the name of the texts, which explained the means to compel the deities to fulfill the wishes of the devotee?
    What was the means of compelling the deities called?
    Why was the tantric religion so called?
    What was the genesis of the word tantra?
    What were the two major techniques in tantras?
    What was the main aim of achieving the magical power through tantras?
    Which is the main Mantra of Tantric Buddhism?
    What is Shadakshara?
    What is Om mani padme hum?
    Where is the Shadakshara popular in present times?
    How many times is Shadakshara repeated in a day in Tibet?
    Who is the consort of Buddha in Vajaryana School?
    Who is the consort of Avalokiteshvara in Vajaryana School?
    What is the English translation of Shadakshara mantra?
    What is significance or mystical meaning of the Shadakshara mantra?
    What was the another important training in Vajaryana, which is also highly advocated in almost all the religions?
    What is the main aim of mental training in Vajaryana School?
    What was the state of the mind of mental trainer of Vajaryana School?
    What was the aim of the mental trainer concerning Tara?
    What role do the trainers play in sexual union in Vajaryana School?
    Were there any restrictions while performing sexual rites in Vajaryana School?
    To what level were the sexual rites permitted in Vajaryana School?
    What were the accompaniments with the sexual rites in Vajaryana School and which other religion had similar rites?
    Which other sect, which followed Vajaryana, adopted the similar religious rites as that of tantric Buddhism?

    The Buddhist Order: - (It is another section which had been giving questions nearly two to three.It has been asked in Mains also a number of times. )

    What were the disqualifications for getting the membership of Buddhist Order?
    Was caste one of the disqualifications from becoming the member of the Buddhist order?
    What social and economic inference can be gathered from the disqualification for becoming the member of the Buddhist order?
    What was the age to preparation for becoming the member of the Buddhist order?
    At what age could a trained person attain the membership of the Buddhist Order?
    Describe the procedure of initiating a person in the Buddhist Order?
    How many robes did the newly initiate to the Buddhist Order take over?
    Which colour of robes did the newly initiate to the Buddhist Order take?
    What was the ceremony concerning the hairs of the newly initiate to the Buddhist Order?
    What the two main announcements were made by the newly initiate made on joining the Buddhist Order?
    List the ten Precepts of the Buddhist order?
    How many times the ten percepts repeated by the monk as a member of the Order?
    When could a monk leave the membership of the Buddhist order?
    What was the restraining force, which forbade the Monk from leaving the Buddhist order?
    For how long the vows of the ten percepts were followed sincerely by the monk?
    Can a monk eat non-vegetarian food? If takes vegetarian food, will it go against the principle of non-violence included in the ten percepts of the monastic rules?
    Under which percept is it enjoined upon the monk to observe the celibacy?
    What were restrictions on the food for the monk? Could he take the liquid in the evening?
    What are the exceptions to the food eating timings of the monk of an Order?
    What were the exceptions to listening music and singing?
    What were the eight major possessions of a monk as a member of an Order?
    How did the monks obtain their food?
    When did the monks take the begged food?
    What changes took place concerning the method of begging later?
    Did there any vow about obedience and which religion is it the major vow?
    Who did the monk generally respected?
    Did there was any binding on the monk to respect any one?
    Was there any central authority to regulate the working of the monasteries?
    What were the guiding principles for the administration of the day to day working of the monastery?
    Who could interpret the principles for the conduct of the monasteries as told by the master Buddha himself?
    What was the major feature of the administration of the monasteries?
    How was the chief monk of the monastery appointed?
    How was the day to day activities of the monasteries taken care of?
    Who was authorized to take the important decisions concerning the administration of the monasteries?
    What were the major decisions concerning the working of the administration of the monasteries?
    What was the real meaning of the upavasatha?
    When did the upavasatha take place?
    Discuss the activity of the day of upavasatha?
    Where are the monastic rules written in Vinaya Pitaka?
    Where are the monastic rules called?
    What was the main activity in a day for a monk?
    In what other activities did a monk participate in day in a monastery?
    What was the major work of the elderly monks?
    What is Brahmavihara in a life of a monk?
    Which was the most important spiritual activity of a monk in a monastery?
    Which is the fifth mood of the Brahmavihara?
    Where there only Brahmavihara for the monks?
    Which of the instruction in the eight-fold path constitute a major mental training of the monk?
    What is the difference between earlier Buddhist Orders and present monasteries of Tibet from female participation?
    What were rules, which governed the conduct of the Buddhist nuns?
    What was the colour of the robes of the nuns?
    Who were the main accusers of immoral activity of the Buddhist monks and nuns?

    Buddhist Ethics and morality: (This aspect is also important. Whenever there is question on comparison with Jainism, understanding of this aspect is very important in selecting the right option in the answer. ) (Just a reference: In Jainism there is stress on Jiva and Ajiva; Karma Bandh and Jara. In Buddhism there is theory of transmigration but every new birth is considered a new one in which Karma of previous are not carried along. The karma effects the next birth but does not dictate the working of Karma in the new birth. This is the twist on which the examiners always ask questions.)

    What is the main set of the Buddhist ethics?
    Which are the four cardinal virtues of Buddhism?
    What is the corresponding virtue in Sanskrit language for love?
    What is the actual meaning of love in Buddhist ethics?
    What is stand of Sthaviravadin School and Great Vehicle on the question of Good Deeds?
    What is the source of the ethics of the Boddhisttava?
    Buddha had ordained what another ethics himself?
    How had the ethic for the care for the sick influenced the history and the conduct of the monks?
    Which of the ten percepts are meant for the lay man?
    Can a layman Buddhist become a hunter or butcher and why?
    What are the different implications and exceptions to the ethic of non-violence as given in the ten percepts of Buddhism?
    What is the different implications of the percept that Buddhist would not take what is not given?
    What is the implication of the percept if celibacy for the layman?
    Does Buddhism recommend divorce?
    What is the position of the marital laws and practices in the Buddhist countries at present?
    Which are the six less reprehensible sins as per the Buddhism?
    Does Buddhism permit intoxication for the layman?
    What is another source on the ethics of Buddhism apart form ten percepts?
    What should be the role of wives towards their husband as per the instruction to Sigala by Buddha himself?
    What should be the role of the husbands towards their wives as per the instruction of Buddha himself to Sigala?
    What should be the role of man towards his friends as per the instruction of Buddha himself to Sigala?
    How should an employer treat his employ as per the instruction of Buddha to Sigala?
    What is the peculiarity of the instructions of Buddha to Sigala?
    What is the most important literary source of the Buddhist ethics?
    What is the nature of the contents of the Jatak Khathas?
    What is the main stress in the Jatak Khathas?
    What is the moral in the story of King Shivi in Jatak Khatha?
    What is the summary of the story of Prince Vishvantara in Jatak story?
    Rest of the instructions remain same in the previous post.
    If interested kindly comment immediately so that I may write their answers. You can compare your answers. Otherwise for next few days, I will be just posting the questions. I am interested in posting the questions on the Modern period of India because they can be useful in case of General Studies papers also.

    2 comments:

    1. How to get their answers ??

      ReplyDelete
    2. Read Chapter vii of Wonder That Was India by AL Basham. or contact the author through sumir.sumir.net.in

      ReplyDelete

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