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  • Saturday, May 21, 2005

    Language and Literature in Ancient India Second Set

    Style: Book BasedSuggestion: Use Chapter IX, The Wonder That Was India by A. L. Basham.


    Reference: Continued from Language and Literature in Ancient India

    Special Note: The topic "Dravidian Languages" has been omitted. The contents of the essay is highly technical and comes under the sphere of phonetics and linguistics. One can prepare notes from the contents of the article. However, the questionnaire has been built with a policy that specific historic aspects should be emphasized. The second important guiding principle is the nature of the questions which have already appeared in Preliminary and such questions which has been asked in the Mains Paper I of History. The questions are framed in such a manner that one can prepare the objective type or MCQs as they have appeared in the papers and also prepare notes for the Mains. The section in question is good write up for Mains question. Hence it will be covered under notes types question on this blog.


    Second Note: Some new heading are also formed which do not appear in the book. They are formed on the basis of the questions which have occasionally appeared in the Preliminary examination. Those questions have tried to seek knowledge of the stories and incidences mentioned in the Epics and the poems. The reference to this aspect has been made in the course of questionnaire also.


    WRITING

    Which is first script of India?
    What is the latest date of the fall of Harrapa Civilization?
    Which period of the Indian History does not have any historic of the presence of any script?
    What is the main feature concerning the script in India from 1550 BC to 3rd century BC?
    About the writing of which two type of literature there is reference?
    About which ancient literature there is no reference to the writing of the contents of the literature but it was created when there is no reference of writing it?
    What was the language of writing of the Buddhist and the Sutra literature but of which do not have any evidence?
    Who could have been using the writing script in Later Vedic period?
    When could have been the probable period of use of the script for writing?
    Who could be the first users of the script for the writing purpose?
    If the Vedas, Upanishads and the Brahmans were never written then how had survived for such a long time?
    Which are the first written words of Ancient India?
    What is the contribution of Ashoka to the field of using script for writing?
    What were the two main scripts of the Ashokan period?
    What was the language of the Ashokan inscriptions?
    What changes had been brought to the scripts, which were used by Ashokan when he used them for writing his inscriptions?
    Which is the most important script of the Ashokan scripts?
    Where the Brahmi script is not used in writing the Ashokan inscriptions?
    Which are the two main theories about the origin of the Brahmi inscriptions?
    What is the theory if Sir Alexander Cunningham about the origin of the Brahmi inscription?
    Do the theory of the Harrapan origin of the Brahmi inscription have the support of the Indian scholars?
    Who had elaborated on the theory of the Cunningham about the origin of the Brahmi script?
    What is the contribution of the S Langdon to the theory of the Harrapan origin of the Brahmi script?
    Which is the most accepted theory of the origin of the Brahmi script by the Indian scholars?
    What are the bases of the claiming the Harrapan origin for the Brahmi script?
    How many signs of Harrapan script are identified?
    Which is the second theory of the origin of the Brahmi apart the Harrapan origin of the Brahmi inscription?
    How many letters are there in the Semitic alphabets?
    Which is the direction of writing for the Brahmi script?
    What is the direction of writing for the Semitic script?
    Which out of Brahmi and Semitic language is written from left to right?
    Which out of Brahmi and Semitic script is written from right to left?
    What is the main content of the Ashokan inscription of Lauriya Nanadangarh?
    What is the probable period of writing of the inscription of Lauriya Nanadangarh?
    In which inscription of Ashoka do we find the boustrophedon way of writing?
    Where is the Yerragudi inscription of Ashoka is situated?
    What is the particular about the writing of the Yerragudi inscription of Ashoka?
    Do we find other example of boustrophedon way of writing apart from Yerragudi inscription?
    In which another language of ancient period of India has adopted the boustrophedon way of writing?
    On what thing the boustrophedon way writing is found in Eran in Madhya Pardesh?
    What could be the direction of writing of the Brahmi script?
    Was the Harrapan script also written from right to left?
    What was the basic nature of the letter of Brahmi script?
    What are the main similarities among the Semitic, Brahmi and Sanskrit script?
    How did the Devanagri inscription emerge?
    When did those feature were brought in use which lead to the development of the Devanagri inscription?
    What is the meaning of the Devanagri inscription?
    Why the word Nagari is used in the declaring the Devanagri script?
    Which are those languages, which are written in the Devanagri inscription?
    Which are those languages, which had developed the independent script with local variation in the Devanagri script?
    In which script are Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi and Prakrit written?
    What is the script of Punjab, Bengal, Orissa, and Gujarat?
    What is the name of the script of Tamil and present alphabets of Tamil language?
    What changes did take place in the script during the 5th and the 6th century in Central India?
    By what time did the scripts of the South Deccan and Ceylon acquired the rounded shape?
    What is the Grantha script and where is popular?
    What is peculiar about the Grantha letters?
    By what time had the most 0f scripts of India had acquired their present shapes?
    Form where did the Southeast Asian learn the art of writing?
    Form which region of India did the Southeast Asian countries learned the art of writing?
    Where the earliest Southeast Asian inscriptions are found?
    What is the period the earliest of the Southeast Asian inscriptions?
    What is the language of the inscriptions of the Southeast Asian countries?
    The SouthEast Asian Sanskrit inscription of the 4th to 5th century of Java, Borneo and Malaya resemble the script of which of the Indian reigns?
    Which script of Greater India was influenced by the script of the Pallava reign?
    What is the source of the origin of the script of the Southeast Asian countries?
    What is the east most front of the world where the Brahmi script of India had influenced?
    What is the literal English translation of the word Kharoshti?
    Which was the second script adopted by Ashoka along with Brahmi script?
    What is the source of the origin of the script Kharoshti?
    Where were the Aramaic alphabets popular?
    What is the another term for Achamenid Persia?
    What is the another name for NorthWest?
    What is the direction of writing the Kharoshti script?
    How was the Kharoshti script adopted to the Indian language?
    Till what time did the Kharoshti language live in India?
    Where did the Kharoshti script based Prakrit inscriptions are also found?
    What is the source of the origin of the present script of the Tibet?
    What was the material on which the writing was done in Ancient India?
    How was talipot palm made useable for writing?
    What was the material on which writing was done in Ancient India called?
    In which region was the talapatra usually used?
    What was the material used for writing in the Himalayan regions?
    What was the material used for writing the important matters?
    List the materials used for writing the scripts in the Ancient India?
    When was the paper adopted for writing inscriptions in India?
    What was the material of the ink in the Ancient India?
    What was the tool of writing in Ancient India?
    What was the technique of writing in South India?


    Literature
    VEDIC LITERATURE:


    List the major Vedic literature? (Write a full-fledged note on it. Prepare a note for 15 marks question for paper I of Main examination)
    How many hymns are there in Rig-Veda?
    What are the hymns of Rig-Veda called?
    What are the couplets of the hymns of Rig-Veda called?
    What are Richa in Rig-Veda?
    Who was the author of the various hymns of Rig-Veda?
    When was the each Rich of rig Veda written?
    What was the main merit of the writing of the Rig Vedic Hymns?
    Which are the oldest of the ten mandals of the Rig-Veda?
    What is the literal meaning of the mandal?
    What is the other word in English, which is used for the mandals?
    Who are the writers of the mandal ii and mandal vii?
    Which are the latest mandals?
    What is the importance of the ix mandal?
    Which is the latest part of the Rig-Veda?
    What social, economic and political feature the Purusha Sukta suggests?
    What is the major difficulty in understanding the various Sukta of Rig-Veda?
    What is the literal translation of Vritra, whom the god Indra kills?
    With whom does Indra fight?
    With which foreign story does the Indras’ fight with Vritra resemble?
    What role does Indra perform in killing Vritra?
    Who had made the thunderbolt of Indra?
    What does give Indra strength to fight Vritra?
    What are created when Indra kills Vritra?
    Which is the another dragon, which Indra kills after Vritra?
    What was the name of the mother of Vritra?
    Who was Danu?
    What is the prominent nature of the content of the poetry in Rig Veda? Name such two goddess on which such hymns are written which reflects deep feeling of Aryans for nature.
    How many hymns are there on Ratri?
    Who is the sister of the goddess Ratri?
    Who is the father of Ratri?
    In whose hymns does the moods of nature reflect?
    In which hymn do we find the secular feature, which is also discernable in many of the Vedic hymns?
    What is the actual motive of the hymn Gamester’s Lament?
    To whom is the hymn Gamester’s Lament addressed?
    What is Vibhidaka?
    What did the gamester lose in the gambling?
    Which is the goddess, which is being prayed in the Gamester’s Lament?
    Which is the major hymn addressed to Savitri?
    Where is the Gyatri Mantra found in Rig-Veda?
    Which mountain is the abode of Soma?
    Which god lives on the Mount Mujavant?
    Was there any money during the Rig Vedic period?
    Where is the Gamester’s Lamented recorded?
    What is the nature of the contents of the Atharva Veda?
    To which category does the Atharva Veda belong?
    What is the nature of the contents of Brahmans of Yajur Veda?
    What is mainly the contents and nature of the topics of the Later Vedic Literature?
    In which Brahman is there a story concerning Pururavas and Urvashi?
    What is the motive of the story of Pururavas and Urvashi, as told in Shatapatha Brahman?
    What is the method of becoming Gandharva as per the Shatapatha Brahman?
    Which poet of Guptan era of Ancient India had made the story of Pururvas and Urvashi as the main plot of his drama?
    Who is the father of Pururavas in the story of Shatapatha Brahman?
    What is the place of the happening of the story of Shatapatha Brahman?
    What is the main importance of Upanishad literature as source of history?
    New Heading: Epic Literature:
    Which are the two main secular literature on the history as a source?
    What changes had taken place on the nature of epics over the period of time?
    What was actual nature of the contents of the epics before the interpolation in the contents of the epics?
    What is the first importance of the epics as the religious literature?
    How had the priests treated the contents of the martial stories in the epics?
    Which is more important among Mahabharta and Ramayana?
    Which is the longest poem in the world of literature?
    How many stanzas are there in Mahabharta?
    What is the meter of the stanzas of Mahabharta?
    Who is considered the author of Mahabharta?
    Who was the first person to learn about the story of Mahabharta from Vyas?
    Where did Vaishampayana narrate the contents of Mahabharta for the first time?
    Who was the king Janamejaya?
    What was the occasion when Vaishampayana recited Mahabharta before the king Janamejaya?
    What is the central theme of the Mahabharta in its secular form?
    Where did the incidence of Mahabharta take place?
    Between whom was Mahabharta fought?
    Which place was the capital of Kurus?


    Questions based on the story of Mahabharta

    (Special Note: Such questions has been asked repeatedly. They have even appeared in General Studies Preliminary Examination also. On the same lines, the questions have been asked about the characters of the poems of Tamil literature. Therefore, it will be useful to remember these stories and read every poem seriously. You do not have to remember the whole poem but you remember the characters mentioned, events referred to and the period to which those poems belonged. No doubt, in The Wonder That Was India, the book under consideration, there are many such poems. You may find similar poems from different ancient literature (Sangam and Sanskrit, Prakrit and Pali Literature)(in this book a thesis has been presented that north Indian languages found literary expression only during Medieval Period.) in many other authoritative books. You will not find similar questions in banks of MCQs. There can be upto ten questions which require understanding based on the perspective as being written here. So give some attention to this suggestion. You may be able to answer nearly ten questions and one to three questions in General Studies Preliminary Examination.)

    Who was the actual heir to the throne of Hastinapur?
    Why was Dhritarashtra disqualified to ascend the throne of Hastinapur?
    Who had ascended the throne on the disqualification of Dhritarashtra?
    Why was Pandu made to abandon the throne after ascension?
    How many wives did Pandu have?
    How many sons did Pandu have?
    Name the five sons of Pandu?
    How were the sons of Pandu treated after the death of Pandu?
    How many sons did Dhritarashtra have?
    Who was declared as the heir apparent to Dhritarashtra?
    Who was opposed to the appointment of Yudhishthira as the heir apparent?
    Why were the Pandu brothers forced to leave Hastinapur?
    How did the Pandu brothers live in exile?
    Where and how did Arjuna won the Princes Draupadi as his wife?
    To which region did Draupadi belong?
    What was the status of Draupadi among the Pandu brothers after the marriage?
    In what form of marriage was Draupadi married to Arjuna?
    Where did the Pandu meet Krishna?
    Who was Krishna?
    What did Dhritarashtra do after the marriage of Pandu with Draupadi?
    What was the name of the new capital of Pandyas?
    What was the role of Krishna among the Pandyas?
    What was the attitude of Duryodhana towards the new arrangement?
    How did Duryodhana tackle the new arrangement?
    Who was the helper of Duryodhana in his ploy of game of dice?
    To which region did Shakuni belong?
    What did Yudhishthira lose in the game of gambling?
    What comprise was reached at when Pandyas lost every thing in the game of dice?
    What was the condition for the last year of secret banishment of the Pandyas?
    What was the response of Duryodhana when the Pandyas demanded their share in the empire after they had successfully completed conditions?
    What was the response of Pandyas when they did not receive any response from Duryodhana for their claim?
    Who were the friends of both the families who brought their armies to the battlegrounds?
    Where did the Kurus and Pandyas bring their army to fight a war?
    How long did the battle of Kurukshetra continue?
    What was the result of Kurukshetra battle?
    Who was crowned as the king after the battle of Kurukshetra?
    In whose favour did Yudhishhira renounce the throne?
    Who was Parikshit, who had ascended the throne after Yudhishhira?
    Where was the city of gods situated as per the Mahabharta?
    Where did the Pandya brothers go after abandoning the throne?
    What was the main style of writing Mahabharta?
    Which is the longest section in Mahabharata?
    What are the contents of Shanti Parvan?
    Who is the author of Shanti Parvan?
    Who was Bhishma?
    When did Bhishma narrate the views on Statecraft and Ethics, which are the subject contents of Shanti Parvan?
    Which is the another most important section of Mahabharta?
    Who is the author of Bhagvat Gita?
    Who is the listener in Bhagvat Gita?
    Which are the popular stories narrated in Mahabharta?
    Which is the longest narrative episode of Mahabharta?
    Who was the listener of the story of Nala and Damayanti?
    What is the central idea of the episode of Nala and Damayanti?
    Who were four main suitors of Damayanti apart from Nala?
    The Ramayana:

    How many sections are there in Ramayana?
    Which sections are latter additions in the original Ramayana?
    What is the quality of the language of the original Ramayana?
    Which was written first- Ramayana or the Mahabharata?
    How could the author of Mahabharta include the story of Rama in Mahabharta?
    Who was the main author of Ramayana?
    Why is the story of Rama, as given by Rishi Valmiki, considered more authentic?
    What is the literary form of Ramayana?
    Which of the two out of the seven chapter of Rishi Valmiki Ramayana are later additions?
    When would the first and second chapter have been added to the Rishi Valmiki Ramayana?
    Which is place of main action in Ramayana?
    Which was the capital of King of Kosala?
    In which direction could the event of Ramayana have taken place in relation to Mahabharta?


    The story of Rama

    Who was the king of Kosala?
    Identify the Ancient region of Kosala on an outline of India.
    How many wives did the king Dasharatha of Kosala have?
    Name the three wives of Dasharatha?
    How many sons did Dashartha have?
    Name the four sons of Dasharatha?
    Who was the mother of Rama?
    Who was the mother of Bharata?
    Who was Sita?
    How did Rama marry Sita?
    Who was the daughter of Janak?
    Who was the king of Videha?
    Identify the Ancient region of Videha on an outline of India.
    How had been Rama shown in the first chapter of Rishi Valmiki Ramayana?
    What does it shows about the time when Rama is shown as Avatar of Vishnu?
    Who was declared as the heir of Kosala by Dasharatha?
    What had persuaded Dasharatha to reverse his decision on the question of making Rama as the heir apparent?
    Who had sought the banishment of Rama?
    Which are the two boons, which queen Kaikeyi asked from Dasharatha?
    What was the attitude of Rama towards his banishment?
    Who had accompanied Rama to forests?
    In what capacity had Bharata reigned on the death of Dasharatha?
    What was the longest hermitage of Rama, Lakshmana, and Sita?
    What was the main problem in Dandaka (n.Md) ?
    How did Rama solve the problems at Dandaka?
    Who was Ravana?
    What was the grudge of Ravana against Rama?
    How did Ravana avenge his grudge against Rama?
    How did Ravana carry Sita to Lanka?
    Whose help did Rama seek in tracing Sita?
    Who was Sugriva?
    Who was Hanumant?
    Who was able to learn about the whereabouts of Sita?
    What efforts did Hanumant make to trace Sita?
    Where did Hanumant locate Sita?
    How did Rama reach Sita?
    Who had helped Rama to make a bridge on the sea to Lanka?
    How did Rama rescue Sita?
    How had Ravana treated Sita during her captivity?
    How had Sita responded during her captivity?
    What did the sacred laws enjoin upon Rama in matter of treatment to Sita on her return from the captivity?
    How did Sita acquire absolution for herself to make her eligible for being taken as wife by Rama as per the requirement of sacred law?
    How was the innocence of Sita established?
    How did Bharata treat Rama and Sita on their return to Ayodhya?
    In which chapter, is the sequel to the return of Rama to Ayodhya narrated?
    What are the views of the scholars on the last chapter of the Rishi Valmiki Ramayana?
    What is the view of the scholars on the status of the last chapter in Rishi Valmiki Ramayana?
    Who had raised the question on the purity of Sita in Ayodhya?
    What was the main objection of the people of Ayodhya on the legal status of Sita?
    What was the response of Rama towards the objection of the people of Ayodhya?
    Where did Sita take refuge after she was banished by Rama to placate the objection of the people of Ayodhya?
    How many children were born to Sita?
    Where were children born to Sita?
    Name the children of Rama and Sita?
    What was the political basis of banishing Sita?
    How did Sita establish her innocence after giving birth to her children?
    What is the meaning of the word Sita?
    What divine role does Sita play in order to justify her name?
    What was the actual theory about the origin of existence of Sita in human form?
    Was Sita really a daughter of King Janak of Videha?
    What aspect of real life concerning the role of a tribal chief is depicted in the theory of origin of Sita?
    What did Rama do when Sita gave away her corporal existence?
    What form Rama had acquired on his return to heavens?
    In which literary work is a happy ending depicted to the story of Rama and Sita?
    How is Bhavabhuti’s Uttaramacharita different from Rishi Valmiki Ramayana?
    Who is the author of Uttaramacharita?
    When did Bhavabhuti write Uttaramacharita?
    Where do we find reference to the story of Rama in Buddhist literature?
    What part of the story of Rama as told by Rishi Valmiki, is not given in Jataka literature of Theravada School of Buddhism?
    How is Rama shown in the Jataka literature?
    What is the view of the scholars on the plots of banishment of Rama and the conquest of Ceylon by Rama?
    Which two traditions had Rishi Valmiki conflated in Ramayana?
    Which part of the story of Shri Rama is not historic in nature?
    What maximum could the army of monkey suggests on rational grounds?
    What is the style of the writing of Ramayana as compared to Mahabharta?
    Which out of Ramayana and Mahabharta, is grammatically more perfect?
    What are the normal grammatical errors in Mahabharta?
    What are the main literary features of writing which differentiate with Mahabharta?
    Who had revealed the secret of life to Ravana to Ram?
    What was the power behind the arrows of Rama, which took the life of Ravana?
    Which was the main feature of the didactic literature of the ancient time?

    Classical Sanskrit Poetry

    Which is the earliest Classic Sanskrit Poetical work?
    Who was the author of Buddhacharita?
    When had Ashvaghosha written the Buddhacharita?
    What was the religion of Ashvaghosha?
    Which the best example of the earliest courtly Classic Sanskrit?
    When was the Girnar inscription written?
    To which king does the Sanskrit inscription of Girnar, belong?
    By what time had Sanskrit acquired the position of the courtly language?
    What was the position of the popularity of Sanskrit language in court of the monarchs of West?
    Which is the best example of the Sanskrit literature?
    What is the main objection against the Sanskrit literature?
    Which was the main audience of the Sanskrit literature?
    What was the influence of the society on the production of Sanskrit literature?
    What was the main mode of the Indian literature in Sanskrit?
    What were the main subjects of the Sanskrit literary work?
    Which feature of the Sanskrit literature was not very prominent in case of the courtly works?
    How is the subject of the religion treated in the Sanskrit language?
    Who is considered the best writer on religion in Sanskrit language?
    What type of love was mainly depicted in the Sanskrit literature?
    How had the writers in Sanskrit treated nature in the language?
    Which aspect of the Kalidas Sanskrit work made it popular in the west?
    Which type of the Sanskrit literature is more useful for history as sources?
    Which element of literature is prominent in the Classic Sanskrit writing?
    Which is the most popular practice of Kalidas while writing?
    Which alankaras is used the most in the Sanskrit literature?
    Which type of Sanskrit literature was highly popular?
    What was the main purpose of writing Sanskrit poetry?
    Which are the basic eight rasas in Sanskrit poetry?
    Which is the most important element of the Sanskrit poetic theory?
    How was the element of dhvani used in Sanskrit poetry?
    Name the main literary theorists of Sanskrit literature?
    Who had written Kavyadarsha?
    Note: Here are some additional questions which can not be answered with the help of A. L. Basham.
    When did Dandin write Kavyadarsha?
    Who had written Kavyalankara?
    When did Bhamaha write Kavyalankara?
    Who had written Dhvanyaloka?
    When did Anandavarshan write Dhvanyaloka?
    Who had written Kavyaprakasha?
    When did Mammata write Kavyaprakasha?
    Who had written Sahityadarpana?
    When did Vishvanatha write Sahityadarpana?
    What is the meaning of alankara?
    Which element of Sanskrit writing in poetry is the most important?
    Which are the main aspects of alankara?
    What was the influence of use of alankara on the quality of the Sanskrit poetry?
    What was the main unit of Sanskrit poetry?
    What was the main method of writing mahakavya?
    Which type of Sanskrit poetry writing was very popular?
    Which type of collection of Sanskrit poetry is still surviving?
    What is the normal size of the stanza in the Sanskrit poetry?
    How many syllables could be there for each stanza?
    What does the metre used in the Classic Sanskrit call?
    What is the general length of the Shaloka?
    Which aspect of the Sanskrit poetry is highly appreciated?
    Who is considered as the greatest poet of Sanskrit?
    Who were the main patrons of Kalidas?
    Why are the accounts of Kalidas considered of high importance by the student of history?
    What are the merits of the Kalidas’s works for studying the culture of the contemporary period?
    With which other art works are the Kalidas’s works compared?
    What are the main personality traits of Kalidas?
    Which are three main dramas of Kalidas?
    Which are the two main poems of Kalidas?
    Which are the two short poems of Kalidas?
    What is the English translation of Meghaduta?
    How many versed are there in Cloud Messenger?
    Which is the most popular Sanskrit Poem of Kalidas?
    Which is the most popular poem in Sanskrit literature?
    Which poem in Sanskrit literature had been copied in Sanskrit and vernacular poetry?
    Which is main feature of Meghaduta as a poem of par excellence?
    Name the main character of the Meghaduta?
    Where did the Yaksha of Meghaduta reside?
    Who was the master of Yaksha?
    Where was Yaksha banished?
    What is the main plot of Meghaduta?
    What is the main agony of Yaksha?
    What is the main content of the poem Meghaduta?
    What is the first message of Yaksha to the clouds?
    Which are the geographical features explained by Kalidas through the message of Yaksha?
    Which river had been described in Meghaduta?
    Which city had been mentioned by Kalidas in Meghaduta?
    Which river was situated near Ujjain as explained by Kalidas in Meghaduta?
    How had Kalidas explained the beauty and culture of Ujjain?
    What is the English word for the Kumarasambhava?
    What is the actual motive of the poem Kumarasambhava?
    Who are the characters of Kumarasambhava?
    Which mountain is explained in the poem Kumarasambhava?
    How was the mountain described in Kalidasa Kumarasambhava?
    What is the main story of the poem Kumarasambhava by Kalidasa?
    Who is the villain in Kumarasambhava?
    What is the main idea in Raghuvansha?
    What is the main idea in Ritusanhara?
    Which is most unimpressive work among the works of Kalidasa?
    How many seasons does a Hindu year include as per the Ritusanhara?
    Who was the writer of Janaki-harana?
    Who was the writer of Kiratarjuniya?
    Who is Kirata?
    What is the main content of Kiratarjuniya?
    What is the main content of Bhattikavya?
    Who was the author of Bhattikavya?
    In which century was Bhatti writing Bhattikavya?
    Who was the author of Shishupala-vadha?
    When did Magha write Shishupala-vadha?
    What is the content of Shishupala-vadha?
    What is content of the poem Raghuvansha by Kalidas?
    In which of the poem of Kalidas is the story of Rama given?
    Is the poem Raghuvansha a complete poem?
    Which of the poem of Kalidas is not complete?
    What is the English translation of the word Ritusanhara?
    What is Dvyashraya Kavya?
    Which is the best example of Dvyashraya Kavya?
    What is the category of Ramacharita of Sandhyakara of 12th century?
    Who was the patron king of Sandhyakara?
    Who are the two heroes of the Ramacharita of Sandhyakara?
    Which is the most popular and useful category of poetry for the history as source?
    Who is considered the best poet of one stanza poetry of the ancient India?
    How many poems had Bhartihari written?
    When did Bhartihari was live?
    What are the contents of the poems of the poet Bhartihari?
    What is the language used by Bhartihari?
    What are the two main passions of the Bhartihari poetry?
    What had dominated his latter poetry?
    What are the five main elements in Hindu physics?
    Who was the mot erotic poet of the Ancient India?
    When did Amru live?
    What are the main good points of the Amru’s poetry?
    Name the famous poet of Harsha period?
    Name the poetic work of Bana?
    Name the most famous poet of Kashmir from 11th and 12th century?
    Name the work of Bilhana?
    What is the English translation of Chaurupanchashika?
    What is the content of the poem of Bilhana?
    What is the identification of the poem of Bilhana?
    Who was the writer of Gita Govinda?
    When did Jayadeva write Gita Govinda?
    What was the motive of writing Gita Govinda?
    Who are the main characters in Gita Govinda?
    What is the main theme of Gita Govinda?
    Among whom is Gita Govinda still popular?
    What is the beginning of Gita Govinda?
    What is the tone of Gita Govinda?
    What is the peculiar feature of Jayadeva Gita Govinda as a Sanskrit poem?
    Where is the name of the poet mentioned in Gita Govinda?
    From which direction does the Love-god come as per Gita Govinda?
    What is the usual ornament of Krishna in Gita Govinda?
    What is the category of Brihatkatha?
    What is the nature of the contents of Brihatkatha?
    What is the most famous Brihatkatha of Ancient India period?
    Who is the writer of Katha-sarit-sagara?
    When was Katha-sarit-sagara written?
    Which are the two main feelings depicted in Katha-sarit-sagara?
    Which is most popular narrative poetry form of Ancient India period?
    Name the popular narrative poetry of Harsha Vardhan period of Ancient India?
    Who is the writer of Vikramkadevacharita?
    Who is the hero of Vikramkadevacharita?
    What is the category of Ramacharita by Bilhana?
    Who is the writer of Hammira-mahakavya?
    When was the king Hammira killed?
    Where did the king Hammira rule?
    Who was the enemy of Hammira?
    How was the Sultan Allauddin Khilji mentioned in the Hammira-mahakavya?
    What was the religion of Nayachandra Suri, the writer of Hammira-mahakavya?
    Who was the court dancer of Hammira?
    What was the dynasty of Hammira?
    Who killed the dancer Radhadevi of the court of Hammira of Ranthambor?
    What is the another name of Ranthambor?

    The Drama

    Since when are the Aryans acquainted with the drama as the performing art?
    With which other school of drama does the Indian drama of Ancient period resembles?
    What are the bases of claiming resemblance of Indian and Greek drama in the ancient period of Indian history?
    What does the curtain at the back of the stage call in the Indian drama?
    What is the Sanskrit translation of Little Clay Cart drama?
    Discuss the possibility of the influence of the Greek drama on Indian drama?
    What is the usual size of Indian drama in Sanskrit?
    Who were usually the actors in Dramas in Ancient India?
    Did the royal families also act in the dramas?
    Where do we find the stage for dramas, which had been used in Ancient Indian period?
    Where were the dramas mostly performed in the Ancient Indian period?
    What was the word for stage in Sanskrit?
    From where do the actors make their entry on ranga?
    What purpose does yavanika perform on ranga?
    What is the back of the ranga called in Sanskrit?
    How was the absence of the backdrop scenery covered up in the Sanskrit drama?
    How was body used to perform as the stage language in Sanskrit drama?
    What was the qualification of the audience in enjoying the Sanskrit drama?
    What was the dress code of the actors to signify various characters in a Sanskrit drama?
    What is the usual way of starting the drama in Sanskrit literature?
    What is the role of the sutrashara in Sanskrit Drama?
    What was form of narration of the course of drama in Sanskrit literature?
    Were there songs in Sanskrit drama?
    What was the role of the praveshaka in Sanskrit drama?
    How was the Sanskrit drama different from European drama tradition?
    What aspect of drama, quite practiced in European tradition, is intently avoided in Sanskrit drama tradition?
    What was the general ending of a Sanskrit drama?
    Which were those two moods, which an ancient drama lover enjoyed in the Sanskrit drama?
    Which is considered the first dramatist of Sanskrit?
    What are the common plots in the Sanskrit literature?
    Which were the main sources for the Sanskrit plays?
    Which were the usual heroes of the Sanskrit plays?
    What were the main criteria of the classifications of the Sanskrit plays?
    What are the words for the hero, heroine and villain in Sanskrit plays?
    What was the role of a vidushaka?
    What was the caste of a vidushaka?
    What is the vita in a Sanskrit play?
    Which is the earliest surviving play in Sanskrit?
    From was the Ashvaghosa manuscript located?
    Which are the oldest complete plays in Sanskrit literature?
    How many plays of Bhasa are available?
    Name any two perfect plays of Bhasa.
    What are the sources of the plot of the short dramas of Bhasa?
    What are the distinctive points of plays of Bhasa?
    In what way had Bhasa broken away from transition in writing the plots of the play?
    What was the another qualification of a playwright in Sanskrit?
    What is the nature of the play Malvikagnimitram of Kalidas?
    What is the time period of the Malvikagnimitram?
    Which of the three plays of Kalidas had survived?
    What is the plot of the Vikramirvashi?
    Which is considered the masterpiece of Kalidas?
    What time is depicted in Abhijnanshakuntalam play?

    What is the name of the king in the drama Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    How many acts are there in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Who is the main heroine of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Where did Shakuntala live when Dushyanta saw her?
    What was the name of the mother of Shakuntala?
    What is the main plot of the first act of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What is the main plot of the second act of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What is the plot of the third act of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Who were the two confidants of Shakuntala in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What was the suggestion of the confidants of Shakuntala to her in the third act of the Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What did Dushyanta give to Shakuntala as the sign of the desire to marry her in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What type of marriage did Shakuntala and Dushyanta perform to unite Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What is the main plot of the fourth act of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What is the nature of the hermit Durvasas?
    What was the curse of Durvasas to Shakuntala in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What was the attitude of Kanva towards Shakuntala in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What did Kanva decide for the expecting Shakuntala in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Who had accompanied Shakuntala to the court of Dushyanta in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What is the main plot of the act fifth in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Name the two hermits who accompanied Shakuntala to Dushyanta in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What was the name of the pet of Shakuntala about whom she mentioned to the king in the act fifth of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What was the name of the tribe of Dushyanta in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What was the advice of the chief priest to the king in the act fifth of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Who took away Shakuntala when she was going with the chief priest of Dushyanta in the act fifth of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    What is the plot of the sixth act of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Who brought the message of Indra to Dushyanta?
    Who was the charioteer of Indra?
    What is the plot of the seventh, the last act of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Where did Dushyanta find Bharta?
    What is the tribe of Bharta?
    What were the two main determinant factors for the course of the life of the characters of the story of Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Which aspects of the life were appreciated by the audience of the Guptan era, which Kalidas had used in his plays especially in Abhijnanshakuntalam?
    Name the only surviving one act play of Shudraka?
    Who was writer of Mrichchakatika?
    What is the plot of Mrichchakatika?
    Name the two main characters of Mrichchakatika?
    Who was the reigning king in the one act play Mrichchakatika of Shudraka?
    What is the nature of the life style of the characters of Mrichchakatika of Shudraka?
    Which of the Indian one act play in Sanskrit was most appreciated by the Western audience of its translation?
    Who was the contemporary playwright of Shudraka?
    To which century does Vishakhadatta belong?
    Which is the complete surviving play of Vishakhadatta?
    What is the story of the play Mudrarakshasa?
    What type of plays did Vishakhadatta write?
    What is the story of the Devichandragupta written by Vishakhadatta?
    Who was the villain in Mudrarakshasa?
    Name the three major plays of King Harsha of Vardhan dynasty?
    Who is the heroine of the play Ratnavali written by king Harsha?
    Who is the heroine of the play Priyadarshika written by king Harsha?
    Who is the hero in the play Nagananda written by Harsha?
    What is the nature of the play Nagananda written by Harsha?
    What are the place of happening in the plays Ratnavali and Priyadarshika written by king Harsha?
    Who was the contemporary royal dignitary of Harsha, who was also famous for writing the plays?
    Who was the author of Mattavilasa?
    What was the English translation of Mattavilasa?
    What is the story of the play Mattavilasa written by the Pallava King Mahendravikramvarman?
    Who were the characters of the play Mattavilasa of Mahendravikramvarman?
    Who is the best playwright next only to Kalidas, from the Ancient history of India?
    Where did Bhavabhuti live?
    To which century did Bhavabhuti belong?
    Name the three surviving plays of Bhavabhuti?
    What is the central story of the play Malati and Madhava?
    Who is the central character of Mahaviracharita?
    Who is the central character of Uttararamcharita?
    What are the distinctive features of the plays of Bhavabhuti?
    When did the Sanskrit playwright Bhatta Narayana exist?
    When did the Sanskrit playwright Murari exist?
    When did the Sanskrit playwright Rajashekhara exist?
    When did the Sanskrit playwright Krishnamisra exist?
    Sanskrit Prose Literature

    Which is the earliest example of Sanskrit prose?
    Which are earliest two examples of Sanskrit prose?
    When did the elaborate style of prose develop in the Ancient India?
    What was the prose work in Guptan period called?
    Name the chief prose writers of the Guptan period?
    What is the period of existence of Dandin, Subandhu, and Bana?
    Name the most famous work of Dandin.
    What are the literary merits of Dashakumaracharita of Dandin?
    What is the literary form of Dashakumaracharita of Dandin?
    To which period does the Dashakumaracharita of Dandin belong?
    What is the nature of the contents of Dashakumaracharita of Dandin?
    What is the importance of the Dashakumaracharita of Dandin as a source on social history of ancient history period of India?
    What is the theme of the story collection in Dashakumaracharita of Dandin?
    Which is the only extant work of Subandhu?
    Who is the heroine of the prose work Vasavadatta of Subandhu?
    Who was the love of the heroine of Vasavadatta written by Subandhu?
    What are the weaknesses of the writing skills of Subandhu?
    What are the important features of the skills of Subandhu as a writer?
    Which are the two important styles of writing prose in Sanskrit?
    What was the style of writing prose of Subandhu?
    What was the style of writing prose of Kalidas and Dandin?
    Who had adopted the Gauda style of writing prose during ancient period of Indian history?
    Who had adopted the Vaidharbha style of writing prose during the ancient period of Indian history?
    What is the another name of Vaidharbha style of writing?
    What is the main feature of Gauda style of prose writing?
    What is the main style of Vaidharbha or Berar style of writing prose during the ancient period of Indian history?
    What was the style of writing prose of Bana?
    With whom did the style of Bana in writing prose resembles?
    What are the main features of writing prose of Bana?
    Which are the two main works of Bana?
    Which is the best autobiography in Sanskrit literature?
    What was the background of Bana?
    What does the list of the friends of Bana suggest about the caste rules in the eighth century?
    What was the first experience of Bana in his first meeting with the king Harsha?
    How was Bana appointed in the court of Harsha?
    What was bent of mind of Bana?
    What was the main character of Bana?
    What are the main features of the writing of Bana?
    What was the attitude of Bana towards the ruling form of government and the public?
    What is the content of Harshcharita of Bana?
    What is the negative feature of the contents of Harshcharita of Bana?
    What is the content of Kadambari?
    What is the second author of Kadambari along with Bana?
    What is the form of Pali Jatakas?
    Who are the characters in Jatakas?
    In which other literature do we find stories similar to the Jatak stories?
    Which of the literature of India had influenced the literature of West?
    Which of the Indian literary work was translated into Pahlavi?
    What is Pahlavi literature?
    When was Panchtantra translated into Persian language?
    When was Panchtantra translated into Arabic?
    What was the source of translating Panchtantra in to Arabic?
    Which were the languages, through which Panchtantra entered Europe?
    What is the name of the first English translation of Panchtantra?
    Who was the translator of Panchtantra?
    What is The Morall Philosophie of Doni?
    Why did Sir Thomas North adopt the peculiar title for the translation of Panchtantra?
    When did The Morall Philosophie of Doni appeared in English print?
    Which of the Indian work was first to be published in English language in 1570?
    Which is the another literary product that had been source of borrowing by the Europe?
    What is the general nature of the contents of Panchtantra?
    Who was considered the main readers of Panchtantra?
    How were the stories in Panchtantra told?
    Which is the most popular version of Panchtantra?
    Who is the writer of Hitopadesha?
    Where was Hitopadesha composed?
    Where was Hitopadesha composed?
    What is the general use of Hitopadesha as a work of Sanskrit?
    What are the distinctive features of Hitopadesha?

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